Spectrum 4 Teacher Guide

4 Live well Unit summary Exercise 1 • Focus students’ attention on the people in the photos and ask Vocabulary the

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4

Live well

Unit summary

Exercise 1

• Focus students’ attention on the people in the photos and ask

Vocabulary

them to use adjectives to describe how the people feel.

Phrasal verbs: calm (sb) down, cheer (sb) up, chill out, cut down on, face up to, open up to, slow (sth) down, wake (sb) up, work out Aches and pains: broken, bruised, dislocated, itchy, sore, sprained, swollen Phrasal verbs: carry on, end up with, keep in, lie around, wrap up Word builder: accessible, advisable, cautious, national, snowy Learn it!: break (n), break (v)

Grammar

• Invite different students to read aloud the different responses

• •

to the question. Ask the class to read and listen and see if the adjectives that they used to describe the photos are mentioned. Tell them to write the adjectives that are in each text in their notebooks. Ask students to find three pairs of opposite adjectives. Tell students that there might be more than one possible antonym for some adjectives. Allow students to compare their answers in pairs before checking them with the class.

SUGGESTED ANSWERS

The first and second conditional if and unless The third conditional

calm / ​stressed (angry/anxious/busy); grumpy / ​cheerful; sleepy / ​dynamic

Functional language Asking for advice What should I do? What would you do if you were me? Would you suggest … (+ing)? Giving advice If you …, you will … (+ infinitive) If I were you, I’d … (+ infinitive) My advice would be to … (+ infinitive) Make sure you … (+ infinitive) Have you thought about …? (+ing) You could … (+ infinitive) You should / ​shouldn’t … / Y​ ou ought to (+ infinitive)

Unit opener Vocabulary Aims

• Learn phrasal verbs for actions and feelings that make you happy. • Learn adjectives for feelings. • Talk about what makes you happy.

7 5

Develop linguistic communication. Develop social and civic competences. VOC APP

For individual practice, students who have a smartphone can download the free Spectrum VOC APP, which includes wordlists of the key vocabulary complete with audio, example sentences, quizzes and a choice of Basque, Catalan, Galician or Spanish translations.



Unit 4

T46

Exercise 2

• Ask a confident student to read the instruction and the • •

definitions aloud. Tell students to find adjectives in the speech bubbles that match the definitions. Point out that more than one adjective might match some of the definitions. Allow students to compare their answers in pairs before checking them with the class.

ANSWERS

1  anxious  ​2  cheerful  ​3  dynamic  ​4  grumpy; angry   ​ 5  sleepy  ​6  calm

Exercise 3

• Read through the instruction with the class. Tell students to • •

use the list of adjectives from exercise 2. Choose an adjective and ask and answer the question with a strong student. Divide the class into pairs to ask and answer the questions.

Exercise 4

• Ask individual students to read the sentences in exercise 4.



Then ask them to read the speech bubbles again and decide if the sentences are true or false, correcting any false sentences. Remind them to write their answers in their notebooks. Check answers with the class and elicit corrections for the false sentences. Accept variations on the sentences given in the answer key, as long as the meaning is the same.

ANSWERS

1 2 3 4 5

True. False. Beth doesn’t cut down on things she does. False. Thomas listens to music when he has a problem. False. Abigail opens up to friends when she feels anxious. True.

Exercise 5

Optional activity Write the following questions on the board: 1 What problems do you find it difficult to face up to? Why? 2 Do you know anyone who should slow down? Why? 3 What do you do when you want to chill out? 4 What should you cut down on? Why? Ask students to write one more question to ask a partner, using the phrasal verbs in the speech bubbles. Divide the class into pairs or small groups to ask and answer the questions on the board and their own question. Invite some students to share one of their own answers with the class.

Exercise 6

• Read through the instruction with the class. Ask students to

read the questions quickly, ignoring the gaps, to get the gist.

• Divide the class into pairs and ask them to complete the • • •

ANSWERS

1  cheer  ​2  work  ​3  open  ​4  calm  ​5  chill v Vocabulary practice • 1–3 star tasks to practise the vocabulary. Also available on the Tests and Resources Multi-ROM.

Exercise 7 21st Century skills: Supporting others

• Focus students’ attention on the 21st Century Skills box and •

• Focus on the phrasal verbs in bold in the speech bubbles and









elicit the meanings. Ask students to choose the correct options and copy and complete the sentences in their notebooks. Do the first one as an example if necessary. Check answers with the class.

ANSWERS

1  slow down   ​2  face up to   ​3  cheer up   ​4  cut down

questions in their notebooks. Check answers with the class. Tell the pairs to ask and answer the questions. Invite some students to share their own answers with the class.

read through the task. Divide the class into small groups and ask them to think of ways of cheering someone up. Ask students to think about what they do when they want to cheer themselves up. Tell each group to choose a representative to write their sentences. Ask groups in turn to present their advice to the class. The class could vote for the best.

Exercise 8

• Play the video for students to watch. v Your Views: Cheer up! • Duration: 2.22 minutes • Topic: What cheers you up when you’re sad? • Task: Discuss your views on the topic.

Further practice

Vocabulary, Workbook page 32 Vocabulary reference, Workbook pages 112–113 Vocabulary worksheets, Tests and Resources Multi-ROM

T47

Unit 4

4.2 The power of positive action Reading

Exercise 2

• Explain that 1–6 are comments people have left on the blog. Ask students to read the blog again and, in their notebooks, complete the comments with the correct colour. Allow students to compare their answers in pairs before checking them with the class.

Aims



3 5 7

1  yellow  ​2  green  ​3  blue  ​4  red  ​5  Red  ​6  green; pink

• Read and listen to a blog about how colours affect our mood. • Answer questions on the blog. Develop cultural awareness and expression. Develop social and civic competences. Develop linguistic communication.

Optional activity

v Reading preparation • Interactive task to introduce students to the topic.

Warm-up

• With books closed, point to some colours around the

• • •

ANSWERS

classroom and ask: What colour is this? Include some unusual colours such as beige if possible, and check students understand light and dark to describe colours. Give students two minutes to write as many colour words as they can. They can use their dictionaries to help. Invite the students who wrote the most words to make a list on the board. Ask the rest of the class to suggest further colours. Make sure that students understand all the colours. Ask: What’s your favourite colour? Which colours do you like wearing? Why? Which colours don’t you like? Why? Do some colours make you feel more cheerful? Elicit a range of ideas.

Ask students to read the blog posts again and then write their own comment in response to one of the posts. Invite students in turn to read out their comments to the rest of the class, who should say which blog post it relates to. Elicit whether they agree or disagree with the comments. Encourage as many students as possible to join in and express their opinions.

Exercise 1  $ 2.02

• Read through the question with the class and draw students’ •

attention to the colours of the blog entries. Play the recording for students to read and listen. Check answers with the class, and elicit any related experiences that students have had with colours.

SUGGESTED ANSWERS

Blue makes people less hungry. Light blue helps you to study and relax. Green calms people down. Pink slows people down and makes them sleepy. Red creates a more dynamic mood and makes people win more games. Yellow helps people to open up and cheer up.

Culture note According to psychologists, yellow is associated with sunshine and energy and is therefore a good colour to use in a kitchen or dining room. Green is associated with nature, and is a calm, restful colour. It is often used in bedrooms. Blue is also believed to be a calm, soothing colour, associated also with intellectual activity, making it suitable for bedrooms and studies. Pink is a restful colour, associated with love, so is most suitable for bedrooms. Red is associated with danger, adventure and warmth. It is often recommended as a colour for dining rooms, but not for bedrooms.



Unit 4

T48

The first and second conditional Aims

• Revise the form and use of the first and second conditional. • Complete sentences and a dialogue using the first and second conditional. 7 Develop linguistic communication.

v Grammar animation • Presentation of the first and second conditional in context.

Exercise 3

• Read through the example sentences in the table with the

• • •

class and make sure students understand them. You could ask students to translate the sentences into their own language to check understanding. Ask students to answer the questions in their notebooks. With a weaker group, work through the questions with the class, eliciting and discussing the answers. Check answers with the class. Students can copy the examples into their notebooks, or they could modify the example sentences to make them more personal to help them remember the grammar.

ANSWERS

1 2 3

first conditional: sentences 1 and 2 second conditional: sentences 3 and 4 first conditional second conditional

Exercise 4

• Read through the instruction with the class. • If necessary, read the first gapped sentence aloud and elicit • •

the correct first conditional. Ask students to copy and complete the sentences in their notebooks with the first conditional form of the verbs in the box. Check answers with the class.

ANSWERS

1  ‘ll be late   ​2  won’t be hungry   ​3  passes the exam   ​ 4  ‘ll feel less anxious   ​5  ‘ll feel more dynamic   ​ 6  doesn’t cut down v Grammar practice • 1–3 star tasks to practise the first and second conditional. Also available on the Tests and Resources Multi-ROM.

Recycle

• Read through the information in the Recycle box with the class. • Write a first conditional sentence with If + not on the board



e.g. If I don’t go running, I feel stressed out. Underline If I don’t and point out that we can replace if not with unless and an affirmative verb. Write a second conditional sentence with he or she on the board, e.g. He would go to bed if he were sleepy. Underline were and reinforce the point that we can use were with I and he / ​ she in second conditional sentences.

T49

Unit 4

• You could point out that If I were you, I’d … is often used to give advice.

Exercise 5

• Read the first gapped sentence aloud and give students • •

time to write the answer in their notebooks. Elicit the correct second conditional sentence. Ask students to complete the remaining sentences and questions in their notebooks. Check answers with the class.

ANSWERS

1 Amy would help us if she were here. 2 If they went to bed earlier, they wouldn’t feel so sleepy (at school). 3 Would I feel more relaxed if I painted my bedroom green? 4 If I were you, I’d slow down. You look stressed out. 5 Would I have more energy if I worked out at the gym before school?

Exercise 6

• Ask students to read the dialogue quickly, ignoring the gaps, • •

to get the gist. Ask: Why does Harry want to paint his bedroom? (the colours are too dark) Ask students to read the dialogue again and write the correct verb forms in their notebooks. Check answers with the class by inviting two confident students to read the completed dialogue to the class.

ANSWERS

1  had  ​2  paint  ​3  were  ​4  look  ​5  wouldn’t choose   ​ 6  ‘ll feel

Your turn Aims

• Practise using the second conditional. • Discuss ideas about colours for a bedroom, trainers, the school building, hair and a car. 5 Develop social and civic competences. 4 Develop sense of initiative and entrepreneurship.

Exercise 7

• Read through the instruction with the class and invite a student to read the questions aloud.

• Ask students to add more questions with their own ideas • •

in their notebooks. Go round monitoring and assisting as necessary. Divide the class into small groups to ask and answer the questions. Remind students to use the second conditional in their answers. Conduct class feedback and invite groups in turn to tell the class what their answers were and why.

Further practice

Grammar, Workbook page 33 Grammar reference, Workbook pages 114–115 Grammar worksheets, Tests and Resources Multi-ROM

4.3 Sporting injuries

v Listening preparation • Interactive task to pre-teach vocabulary in the audio.

Vocabulary and Listening

Exercise 3  $ 2.03  Audio script pT155

• Read through the instruction with the class and give students

Aims

time to copy the table in their notebooks.

• Learn vocabulary for aches and pains. • Listen to a podcast about sports injuries. • Answer questions on the podcast.

• Play the recording for students to listen and complete the

7 2



Develop linguistic communication. Develop learning to learn competence.



Warm-up

• With books closed, ask: What sports do you do? Elicit some answers and write the sports on the board.

• Point to the sports on the board and, as a class, brainstorm •

more sports. Add these to the board and check that students understand them all. Ask: Have you ever suffered a sports injury? Elicit a few answers, then ask: Which sports do you think are the most dangerous? Why? Elicit a range of answers.



table. Pause the recording as necessary to give students time to write. Play the recording again if necessary, for students to check and complete their answers. Alternatively, students could answer the questions from memory, and then listen again to check and complete their answers. Check answers with the class.

ANSWERS

Exercise 1

Sport

Injury

How

Event missed

Maria Sharapova

tennis

bursitis/ injured her shoulder

playing tennis

US Open

Steve Morrow

football

broken arm

celebrating

a party

• Ask students to read through the web page and look at the • • •

photos. You could ask them to match the problems shown in the photos with the tips. Ask: Have you ever suffered with any of these problems? Elicit a range of answers from individual students. Divide the class into small groups to discuss the tips. Ask them to choose the three most useful tips. Explain that there isn’t a right or wrong answer, but they should try to justify their choice. Invite groups in turn to tell the class their top tips and why they have chosen them.

Exercise 2 

• Read through the instruction with the class. • Read through the adjectives in the box, modelling their • • •

pronunciation and intonation. Make sure students understand all the adjectives. Read through the sentences with the class, ignoring the gaps, so students get the gist. Ask students to copy and complete the sentences in their notebooks with the correct words. Allow students to compare their answers in pairs before checking them with the class.

Exercise 4  $ 2.03  Audio script pT155

• Read through the instruction with the class. Invite individual students to read the sentences aloud.

• Play the recording again for students to listen and put the •

sentences in the correct order in their notebooks. Allow students to compare their answers in pairs before checking them with the class.

ANSWERS

C, E, B, F, A, D

ANSWERS

1  dislocated  ​2  bruised  ​3  itchy  ​4  swollen; sprained; broken  ​5  sore v Vocabulary practice • 1–3 star tasks to practise the vocabulary. Also available on the Tests and Resources Multi-ROM.



Unit 4

T50

The third conditional Aims

• Learn the form and use of the third conditional. • Complete sentences and a text using the third conditional.

7

Develop linguistic communication.

v Grammar animation • Presentation of the third conditional in context.

Exercise 5

• Read through the example sentences in the table with the • • •

class and make sure that students understand them. Students could translate the sentences into their own language. Ask students to read the rules, choose the correct options and copy the complete rules in their notebooks. Encourage students to copy some of the examples from the table in their notebooks, or modify the example sentences to make them more personal to help them remember. Reinforce the point that we use the past perfect, not would, in the if clause: If they had known, they would have done things differently. NOT If they would have known, … .

ANSWERS

1  past  ​2  past perfect simple   ​3  would have   ​4  first

Exercise 6

• Read through the instruction and the sentences and make • •

sure the students understand them. Ask them to match the beginnings 1–5 to endings A–E in their notebooks. Allow students to compare their answers in pairs before checking them with the class.

ANSWERS

1  E  ​2  D  ​3  A  ​4  C  ​5  B

Exercise 7

• Focus students’ attention on the picture and ask students • • •

what they know about the sports stars Rafael Nadal, Serena Williams and Michael Jordan. Read through the sentences aloud, ignoring the verbs in brackets. Ask students if they already knew the information about the three sports stars. Ask students to write the completed third conditional sentences in their notebooks. Allow students to compare their answers in pairs before checking them with the class. Refer back to the rules in exercise 5, as necessary, to explain the answers.

ANSWERS

1  hadn’t started  ​2  had listened  ​3  Would ... have become

Culture note Michael Jordan was not initially accepted into his university basketball team because, at 1.80 m, he was considered too short. The following year, he trained hard and also grew 10 cm, so was finally accepted into the team.

T51

Unit 4

Rafael Nadal wanted to follow his uncle Miquel Àngel Nadal and become a professional footballer. However, his uncle Toni realized he was going to be a better tennis player and persuaded him to leave school and dedicate himself to tennis when he was 15. Serena Williams started playing tennis with her sister Venus when she was very young, and soon started winning junior tournaments, going on to become the World Number One.

Exercise 8

• Focus students’ attention on the photo of Claire Lomas, and

• •

ask them to read the text quickly, ignoring the gaps, to get the gist. Ask: Which sports event did she participate in after her injury? (the London marathon) Ask students to read the text again and write the correct verb forms in their notebooks. Check answers with the class.

ANSWERS

1  hadn’t had   ​2  wouldn’t have lost   ​3  ‘d used   ​ 4  would’ve been  ​5  wouldn’t have raised   ​6  hadn’t done v Grammar practice • 1–3 star tasks to practise the third conditional. Also available on the Tests and Resources Multi-ROM.

Your turn Aims

• Write sentences about a sports person. • Practise using the third conditional.

3 7

Develop cultural awareness and expression. Develop linguistic communication.

Exercise 9

• Elicit information about sports people that students admire. • •



Write notes on the board as students offer information. Focus on the notes on the board and elicit one or two third conditional sentences about the sports people. Ask students to write their sentences in their notebooks, using the notes on the board or their own ideas. Remind them to include at least one third conditional sentence. Encourage them to use the language in the Useful language box. Go round monitoring and assisting as necessary. Conduct class feedback, praising good use of the target language and correcting any mistakes.

Further practice

Vocabulary, Workbook page 34 Vocabulary reference, Workbook pages 112–113 Vocabulary worksheets, Tests and Resources Multi-ROM Grammar, Workbook page 35 Grammar reference, Workbook pages 114–115 Grammar worksheets, Tests and Resources Multi-ROM

4.4 Culture

Exercise 2

• Give students time to read the sentences. Check that students

Reading and Vocabulary



Aims

• Read and listen to an article about the Canadian winter. • Answer questions on the article. • Understand phrasal verbs in context. • Learn about adjective suffixes and practise using them.

3 7

ANSWERS

Develop cultural awareness and expression. Develop linguistic communication.

Warm-up

• Focus students’ attention on the map and elicit what students • •

know about Canada, e.g. its geography, weather, sports, famous Canadians, etc. Read the title of the article aloud. Ask: How cold do you think it is in the winter in Canada? What dangers are there when it is very cold? How do you think people stay healthy? Encourage students to speculate and share their ideas with the class.

Canada Canada is the world’s fourth-largest country by total land area, and one of the richest countries in the world. Its capital is Ottawa. The native people of Canada include the Inuit, who live in the far northern parts of the country. European colonization of Canada, mainly by Britain and France, began in the 16th century, and the country gradually gained full independence during the 19th and 20th centuries. Canada has two official languages, English and French, and prides itself on being ethnically and culturally diverse. Winnipeg is in the south of Canada, about half way between the eastern and western shores. It is Canada’s seventh largest city. The climate is warm in the summer and very cold and dry in the winter, with snow sometimes lasting for up to six months. Temperatures can fall as low as -50 degrees. Spongee is a game similar to ice hockey that is played only in Winnipeg. The game is played with a soft ‘spongy’ puck instead of the traditional hard puck used in ice hockey, and players wear ordinary shoes instead of ice skates.

Exercise 1  $ 2.04

• Read through the topics in the box with the class. Encourage



1 True: ‘freezing winters with temperatures of -50ºC – lower than they sometimes are on Mars!’ 2 Not in the text. We only know. 3 Not in the text. Winnipeg schools cancel outdoor breaks at -25 ºC but the text doesn’t say what happens between 0 ºC and -25 ºC. 4 Not in text. 5 True: ‘Winnipeggers also play a variation of ice hockey called spongee.’ 6 False: ‘The skywalk is a network of heated walkways and tunnels.’

Exercise 3

Culture note





understand everything, e.g. freezing. Ask them to read the article again and decide if the sentences are true, false or not in the text. Ask them to write the evidence for each answer from the text and correct any false sentences. Allow students to compare their answers in pairs before checking them with the class.

students to guess which of the topics the article will discuss and what it might say about each one. Play the recording for students to read and listen for the topics that are mentioned and make a note of them in their notebooks. Check answers with the class and ask who guessed correctly.

ANSWERS

houses and transport aren’t mentioned

• Focus students’ attention on the highlighted phrasal verbs • •

ANSWERS

1  keep in   ​2  end up with   ​3  lie around   ​4  carry on   ​ 5  wrap up

Optional activities Divide the class into groups to discuss these questions: What do you think you would enjoy about life in Winnipeg? What do you think you would find difficult? Then invite different groups to share their ideas with the class. As a class, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of living in a cold climate. Divide the class into pairs and ask them to design a poster for a school in Winnipeg, advising students on how to stay safe and healthy during the winter. Encourage them to use zero conditional sentences. Go round monitoring and assisting as necessary. Students can present their posters to the class, and the class could vote for the best.

Exercise 4 Learn it!

• Focus students’ attention on the two words in the Learn it! box. Point out the pronunciation is the same.

• Ask students to make one sentence with break as a noun and •



in the article. Encourage them to guess their meaning from context. Ask students to match each phrasal verb to one of the definitions (1–5) in their notebooks. Allow students to compare their answers in pairs before checking them with the class.

one with break as a verb. Ask students to read out their sentences.

Unit 4

T52

Word builder: adjective suffixes Exercise 5

• Read through the instruction and the words in the box



• •

with the class. Then ask students to find the corresponding adjective forms in the article. You could do this as a race, to motivate students. Check answers with the class, and write the adjectives on the board. Each time, invite a student to read aloud the relevant line from the article. Make sure that students understand all the adjectives. Give students time to read the sentences. Then ask them to complete them with the correct adjectives. Allow students to compare their answers in pairs before checking them with the class.

Exercise 6

• Invite a student to read the instruction aloud. Make sure • •

• • •

ANSWERS

access – accessible (lines 46–47: ‘first aid kits are accessible’) advise – advisable (line 13: ‘it’s advisable to wrap up’) caution – cautious (lines 11–12: ‘the people of Winnipeg have to be cautious’) nation – national (line 31: ‘the national sport of ice hockey’) snow – snowy (line 27: ‘even in extremely snowy or foggy weather conditions.’) 1  cautious  ​2  national  ​3  snowy  ​4  advisable  ​ 5  accessible v Vocabulary practice • Interactive task to practise adjective suffixes.

Optional activity Focus on the adjectives in exercise 5. Elicit the adjective suffixes and write them on the board (-ible, -able, -ous, -al, -y). Point out that -able is used as a variant of -ible. Divide the class into small groups and ask them to think of more adjectives which have these suffixes. Elicit the adjectives and write them on the board. Remind students that it is a good idea to learn word families, and learn how to form new words from words they already know. SUGGESTED ANSWERS

-ible / ​able: enjoyable, comfortable, visible, edible -ous: dangerous, famous, mysterious -al: logical, professional, traditional -y: windy, rainy, sunny

Your turn Aims

• Discuss things that you take with you on a winter holiday. • Practise using conditionals and giving reasons.

7 3

T53

Develop linguistic communication. Develop cultural awareness and expression.

Unit 4

students understand everything. Read through the questions with the class and elicit some example answers. Give students time to prepare their ideas individually. Point out that if any students don’t go on this kind of holiday, they should imagine what they would do if they did. Encourage them to use the language from the Useful language box. Go round monitoring and assisting as necessary. Divide the class into small groups to share their ideas, or discuss the ideas as a class. Conduct class feedback, inviting some students to tell the class what they take with them and what they do on their holiday. Praise good use of the target language and correct any mistakes as necessary.

Exercise 7

• Students watch the video. v Culture video: Vancouver

• Duration: 4.14 minutes • Topic: Vancouver: a city in the south of Canada. • Video worksheets are available in the iPack Resources tab.

Focus on … PE

• Ask students to read the sentences and discuss the answers in •

pairs before they look at page 143 to find out if they are right. Students can now do the Focus on CLIL activities on page 143.

ANSWERS

1  False. Cardiac muscles are in our hearts.   2  True  3  True

Further practice

Reading, Workbook page 37 Word builder, Vocabulary reference, Workbook page 112 Focus on PE, Student’s Book page 143 Curriculum extra worksheet Unit 4, Tests and Resources Multi-ROM

4.5 Practical English: asking for and giving advice

• DICTATION Give students time to read through the gapped •

Listening Aims

• Read a guide to staying healthy at exam times. • Discuss the tips and add further ideas. • Listen to a conversation about tips for staying healthy at exam times. • Do a dictation based on the conversation. 7 Develop linguistic communication. 2 Develop competence in learning to learn.

• •

sentences. Play the recording again for students to listen and write the missing words in their notebooks. Pause the recording as necessary to give students time to write. Alternatively, students could complete the sentences from memory, and then listen again to check and complete their answers. Check answers with the class.

ANSWERS

Warm-up

• With books closed, ask: How often do you have exams? •

Exercise 3  $ 2.06  Audio script pT155

How much time do you spend revising for exams? Elicit a range of answers. Then ask: Why do you think it’s important to be healthy when you’re revising for exams? How could you stay healthier during exam times? Encourage as many students as possible to join in and share their ideas.

Exercise 1

1 2 3 4 5

would be to stop Have you thought about could were; ‘d drink too much; won’t sleep well

Optional activity Ask students to use the sentence beginnings in exercise 3 to write two more pieces of advice about reducing stress at exam times. Divide the class into pairs to compare their ideas and choose two pieces of advice they both agree with. Then invite some pairs to tell the class the two pieces of advice they chose and why.

• Read the instruction and the title of the guide aloud, then

• • •

focus students’ attention on the photos. Ask: What tips do you think the guide includes? Encourage students to speculate and share their ideas. Ask students to read the guide and make a note, in their notebooks, of the tips they use themselves. Then encourage them to reflect on the situation and add one more tip. Invite students in turn to read their tips to the class. Write them on the board. Conduct class feedback. Ask students which tips they consider to be the most useful.

Exercise 2  $ 2.05  Audio script pT155

• Tell students they are going to listen to a teacher giving • •

advice about exam revision. Read the question aloud. Play the recording for students to listen and make a note, in their notebooks, of the tip that is discussed. Allow students to compare their answer in pairs before checking them with the class.

ANSWER

Get enough sleep



Unit 4

T54

Speaking

• Ask students to copy the remaining sentences into their

Aims

• Play the rest of the recording, pausing after each sentence or

• Learn about sentence stress. • Learn about and practise paraphrasing as a speaking strategy. • Learn functional language for asking for and giving advice.

7 2

Develop linguistic communication. Develop competence in learning to learn.

v Speaking preparation • Interactive task to activate the functional language.

Exercise 4  $ 2.07

• Invite a student to read the instruction aloud. Give students time to read the dialogue.

• Play the recording and ask students to answer the question. • Alternatively, ask two confident students to play the roles of •

Leo and Ms Collins and to read the dialogue aloud. Check the answer with the class.

notebooks.

• • •

ANSWERS

What should I do to get fit? If I were you, I’d get some sleep. What would you do if you were me? My advice would be to eat lots of fish and vegetables.

Exercise 7

• Read the instruction with the class, and then focus students’ •

ANSWERS

They are talking about taking breaks whilst studying (tip 4).

Exercise 5



• Read through the Speaking strategy box with the class. • Focus on the words in the box and elicit some possible









paraphrases for brain, e.g. It’s something that controls our bodies. Divide the class into small groups to think of paraphrases for the remaining words. Invite groups in turn to tell the class their paraphrases. As a class, discuss which paraphrases work best for each word.

EXAMPLE ANSWERS

It’s the thing inside your head that thinks. (brain) It’s something that you do when you move your body to music. (dance) It’s similar to a meal but it’s smaller. (snack) It’s what somebody does after sport to cool down their muscles. (stretch)

Optional activity Ask students to look back at the text on pages 52–53 and choose three more words to paraphrase, e.g. trapped, breaks, sensible. Give them time to think of ways to paraphrase them. Divide students into pairs to read their paraphrases to each other, without saying the words. Their partner must guess the words. Conduct class feedback eliciting how easy or difficult they found the task, and how many words they guessed correctly.

Exercise 6  $ 2.08  Say it!

• Read through the instruction with the class and explain that in •

English some syllables are stressed more than others. Write the first question from the Say it! box on the board. Play the recording for this question and elicit which syllables are stressed. Underline these syllables on the board.

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question so that students can underline the stressed syllables. Check answers, playing the recording again so that students can hear which syllables are stressed. Play the recording again for students to listen and repeat. There is a follow-up exercise for further practice on page 150.

attention on the phrases for asking for advice in the Functional language box. Make sure they understand everything. Invite two different students to read the two situations aloud. Then divide the class into small groups and ask them each to choose one of the situations. Explain that they should prepare and practise a dialogue asking for and giving advice. Tell them to use the dialogue in exercise 4 as an example. Go round monitoring and assisting as necessary. When students finish, they can swap roles and practise again. Invite some students to perform their dialogues for the class.

Optional activity Ask students to work individually and think of another situation that they would like advice about. Divide the class into pairs and ask them to take turns to explain their situations to their partner and ask for and give advice. Ask students to tell the class if their partner gave useful advice.

Your turn Exercise 8

• Play the video for students to watch and interact with. v Interactive video: New friends Vlogsters: Unit 4 • Duration: 3:54 minutes • Topic: Tips on how to make friends if you’re shy. • Task: Make a choice from the options offered at the end of the vlog. • Video scripts are available in the iPack Resources tab and on the Tests and Resources Multi-ROM.

Further practice

Pronunciation, Student’s Book page 150 Practical English, Workbook page 36 Functional language, Vocabulary reference, Workbook page 112 Vlogsters scripts, Tests and Resources Multi-ROM Communication: Pairwork, Tests and Resources Multi-ROM

4.6 Writing a blog

Exercise 2

• Ask students to read the blog again and match topics 1–5 to

Aims

• Read a model blog. • Learn some differences between formal and informal English. • Write a blog.

7 4 3

Develop linguistic communication. Develop sense of initiative and entrepreneurship. Develop cultural awareness and expression.

Exercise 3

Encourage as many students as possible to join in, express their opinions and give reasons for their opinions.

Warm-up

• Ask: Do you write a blog? If not, would you like to? Do you read

other people’s blogs? What do you enjoy reading about? Elicit a range of answers. Focus students’ attention on the photos and ask: What do you think an inner-city farm is? Why do you think this girl enjoys working on the farm? What do you think she writes about in her blog? Elicit a range of answers.

Research it!

• Read the Research it! box with the class. • Students could do the research online in class, using their •

ANSWERS

1  Week 3  ​2  Week 1  ​3  Week 3  ​4  Week 2  ​5  Week 2

• Read the question aloud and discuss it with the class.

Writing preparation





Week 1, Week 2 or Week 3 in their notebooks. Give students time to compare their answers in pairs before checking them with the class. Encourage students to provide evidence from the blog for their answers.

Optional activity Ask students if they know of any urban farms in their area, town or city. Elicit any information they have, or encourage students to do some research to report back at a future class. Ask students: If you’d had an urban farm near your home when you were younger, what would you have done? If you had one near your home now, would you like to work there? Why? / ​Why not? Elicit ideas as a class or, if students are very interested in the topic, give them time to discuss the questions in groups. Then invite them to share their thoughts with the class.

phones or tablets. You could do the activity as a race, to motivate students. Students will probably find the answer that blog is short for weblog (web log), a list of items on a web page.

Exercise 1

• Read through the list of benefits with the class and make sure • •

students understand them all. Ask them to read the model text and make a note of the benefits that the blogger mentions in their notebooks. Check answers with the class.

ANSWERS

1 and 3

Culture note There has been a growing movement to create more urban or inner-city farms over the last twenty years, and they can now be found in cities around the world. The aims of urban farming are: to produce fresh food locally in a way that reduces the carbon footprint from agriculture; to provide fresher food which contains fewer chemicals; to encourage people to spend more time outdoors doing physical activity; to help to connect people living in cities with country life. Some larger scale urban farms have also been established, such as the world’s first rooftop farm, which was opened in New York City in 2010.



Unit 4

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Look at language: formal and informal English Exercise 4

• Read the question through with the class and elicit the

answer. Point out or elicit that blogs are written in informal English in order to address the reader directly and have the feeling of being a conversation.

ANSWER

a Think of ideas

• Read through the instruction with the class. • Go through each section of the diagram and check that students understand what each part asks for.

• Ask students to copy the diagram in their notebooks and

complete it with the topic from exercise 7 that they are going to write their blog about.

The blog is written in informal English. Examples of informal English include phrases like ‘chill out’ and ‘kids’ as well as use of contractions.

b Plan

Exercise 5



• Read through the features with the class. Check that students understand colloquial (= very informal).

• Ask students to find examples of the features in the blog. • Conduct class feedback. Ask students to provide examples of

• Go through the writing plan with the class and make sure

c Draft

• Ask students to write the first draft of their blogs. If they

the features they found.

SUGGESTED ANSWERS

1 2 3 4 5 6

join; volunteer; spend (etc.) I’ve just joined; I volunteered; I spent; I worked kids chill out I’ve; they’ll; I’m; couldn’t but; and; also

Exercise 6

• Focus students’ attention on the blog and point out that the •

underlined words are more formal than usual for a blog. Ask students to rewrite the underlined words in their notebooks. Check answers with the class.

ANSWERS

1  I’ve  ​2  wasn’t  ​3  wouldn’t  ​4  Also  ​5  I’ve  ​6  kids  ​ 7  cheers me up

Optional activity Ask students to read the final sentence of each blog post. Ask: What do you notice? (They all end with an exclamation mark.) Elicit or point out that it is important to end a blog post strongly, for example with a humorous comment or an opinion.

Writing task v Writing preparation • Interactive task to practise useful expressions to use in a blog.

Exercise 7

• Explain to students that they are going to write a blog about a free-time activity. Invite a student to read the task aloud.

• Brainstorm some ideas for free-time activities that students •

could write about, e.g. joining a sports club or a gym, joining a drama group, working as a volunteer, etc. Invite some students to read out their ideas for blogs to the class.

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students understand that they should structure their blog in this way. Ask students to write the writing plan in their notebooks and to match their ideas from section a to the writing plan.



do this in class, go round giving help and encouragement. Remind them to use informal language and phrasal verbs and to make the blog reflect their personalities and interests. Remind them to check their grammar and spelling carefully.

d Check

• Ask students to exchange their first drafts with their partners and to read their partner’s blog.

• Students should go through their partner’s blog and answer •

the questions. Students then report back to each other about their work.

e Write

• Students write the second and final drafts of their blogs. • Tell them to correct any mistakes their partners found. • If they do this in class, go round giving help and • •

encouragement. Remind them to use informal language. Invite some students to read their blog to the class. Their classmates can listen for examples of informal English. Alternatively, students could work in pairs to read their partner’s blog to check that it follows the blog plan, uses informal language and includes phrasal verbs.

Further practice

Writing, Workbook page 38 Writing reference, Workbook page 92 Unit 4 Review and Skills Practice, Student’s Book pages 128–129