HA R B SON PHYSICAL CONSTANTS Quantity Atomic mass unit Avogadro's number Boltzmann's constant Coulomb-law constan

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HA

R

B

SON

PHYSICAL CONSTANTS Quantity

Atomic mass unit Avogadro's number Boltzmann's constant Coulomb-law constant Electron mass Elementary charge Gas constant Gravitational constant Permeability constant Permittivity constant Planck's constant Proton mass Speed of light in vacuum

Approximate Value

Symbol

Best Value"

u

1.661 x 10- 27 kg

1.6605402(10) x 10- 27 kg

NA

6.022 x 1023 mol-I

6.022 136 7(36) x 1023 mol-I

k = RIN A

1.381

k( = 1/47T80)

9.00 x 109 N'm 2 /C2

8.987551 8 x 109 N'm 2/C2

me

9.109 x 10- 31 kg

9.109 389 7(54) x 10- 31 kg

e R

1.602 x 10-19 C 8.314 J/K'mol

1.602 177 33(49) x 10-19 C 8.134510(70) J/K'mol

G

6.672 x 10-11 N'm 2/kg 2

6.672 59(85) x 10-11 N ·m 2/kg 2

J.I.o

47T x 10- 7 Him

47T x 10- 7 NI A2 (exact)

80 = I/J.I.oc2

8.854

h

6.626 x 10- 34 J·s

6.626075 5(40) x 1O- 34 J·s

mp

1.672 x 10- 27 kg

1.6726231(10)

c

3.00 x 108 mls

2.99792458 x 108 mls (exact)

X

10- 23 J/K

X 10-12

1.380658(12) x 10- 23 J/K

Flm

8.854 187 8.. x 10-12

X

C 2/N

'm 2

10- 27 kg

• E. Richard Cohen and B. N. Taylor, Reviews of Modern Physics. vol. 59, No.4, October 1987, p. 1121. The numbers in brackets indicate the one standard-deviation uncertainty in the last two digits.

STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS FOR UNITS Ampere Angstrom Atomic mass unit Atmosphere British thermal unit Coulomb Degree Celsius Electronvolt Degree Fahrenheit Farad Foot Gauss Gram Henry Hour Horsepower Hertz

A

A

u

atm Btu C °C eV

OF

F ft G g H h hp Hz

Inch Joule Kelvin Kilocalorie kilogram Pound Meter Minute Mole Newton Ohm Pascal Second Tesla Volt Watt Weber

in. J K kcal (Cal) kg Ib m min mol N

n

Pa s T V

W Wb

Data Often Used Earth Mean Mass Mean Moon Mean Mass Mean Sun Mean Mass

6.37 X 106 m 5.98 x 1024 kg 1.49 X 1011 m

radius distance to sun

1.74 X 106 m 7.36 x 1022 kg 3.84 X 108 m

radius distance to earth

6.96 X 108 m 1.99 x 1030 kg

radius

"Standard" acceleration due to gravity

9.80665 m/s 2

Standard atmospheric pressure

1.013 x IQ5 Pa

Density of air (0 °C and I atm)

1.293 kg/m 3

Density of water (0 °C - 20°C)

1000 kg/m 3

Specific heat of water

4186 J/kg.K

Speed of sound (0 0c)

331.5 m/s 343.4 m/s

(20°C)

PREFIXES FOR POWERS OF TEN Power

Prefix

Abbreviation

Power

Prefix

Abbreviation

10- 18 10- 15 10- 12 10- 9 10- 6 10- 3 10- 2 10- 1

atto femto pico nano micro milli centi deci

a f P n

10 1 IQ2 103 106 109 10 12 1015 10 18

deka hecto kilo mega giga tera peta exa

da h k M G T P E

J.L

m c d

MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS

> «) ~ (~)

»

« 0 n!

the magnitude, or absolute value, of x Ilx approaches zero n(n - I )(n - 2) . . . .

UNIVERSITY

PHYSICS REVISED

HARRIS

EDITION

BENSON

Vanier College

John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York

Chichester

Brisbane

Toronto

Singapore

COVER: Wind surf in Fuertavantura, Canary Islands by Marco Corsetti/FPG International

To my family, Frances, Coleman and Emily, and

to my mentors, D. L. Mills and A. A. Maradudin.

Stuart Johnson/Cliff Mills Ethan Goodman/Catherine Faduska PRODUCTION EDITOR Sandra Russell DESIGN SUPERVISOR Ann Renzi MANUFACTURING MANAGER Mark Cirillo PHOTO EDITOR Hilary Newman PHOTO RESEARCHER John Schultz ILLUSTRATION COORDINATOR Edward Starr ACQUISITIONS EDITORS MARKETING MANAGER

This book was set in 10/12 Times Roman by Bi-Comp, Inc. Color separations by Color Associates. Printed and bound by Quebecor World. The cover was printed by The Lehigh Press, Inc. Recognizing the importance of preserving what has been written, it is a policy of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. to have books of enduring value published in the United States printed on acid-free paper, and we exert our best efforts to that end. The paper in this book was manufactured by a mill whose forest management programs include sustained yield harvesting of its timberlands. Sustained yield harvesting principles ensure that the number of trees cut each year does not exceed the amount of new growth. Copyright © 1991, 1996. by Harris Benson All rights reserved. Published simultaneously in Canada. No part of this publication may be reproduced. stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4470. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street. Hoboken. NJ 07030. (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, E-Mail: PER[email protected] To order books or for customer service please, call 1(800)-CALL-WILEY (225-5945). Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data:

Benson, Harris University physics / Harris Benson-Rev. ed. p. em. Includes index.

ISBN 978-D-471-OO689-3 (alle paper) ISBN 0-471-15264-1 (cloth) I. Physics. I. Title.

QC21.2.B459 1995 53CH1c20

95-41514 CIP

Note on the Revised Edition The main change in this Revised Edition of University Physics is the addition of about 550 new exercises and a few new problems. The "Additional Exercises" are placed at the end of the original exercises, which have been left unchanged. In response to the suggestions of users of the first edition, the new exercises are not keyed to the sections in each chapter. There are now about 2440 exercises and 560 problems, for a total of about 3000. I have taken the opportunity to include some minor clarifications and updating of the text. Despite these changes, the length of the book has increased only marginally to 942 pages. The text is now available in cloth and paperback. I am grateful to David Harmin, University of Kentucky, Fred Wohn, Iowa State University and Roy Middleton, University of Pennsylvania, for their help in improving the accuracy of the book. Mario lona, University of Denver, kindly offered suggestions for improving several figures. As part of their work on the French version of the text, the solutions to all the original exercises and problems were thoroughly checked by Pierre Boucher, Nicole Lefebvre, Marc Seguin and Benoit Villeneuve. It is a pleasure to thank Chris Vuille, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, who took on the task of independently solving all the new exercises and problems. My colleagues at Vanier College have been very helpful in clarifying the wording of exercises and in eliminating errors. Credit goes to Cliff Mills, former Physics editor at Wiley, who provided the impetus for this revision and then put it into production. Stuart Johnson, current Physics editor, oversaw the project through to publication. Others at Wiley who provided support include Hilary Newman, Jennifer Brady, Ethan Goodman, Sandra Russell, Madelyn Lesure and Monica Stipanov. Finally, I gratefully acknowledge the continuing support of my family. HARRIS BENSON August 1995

Preface to the First Edition This text is intended for a calculus-based introductory physics course for science and engineering students. It contains sufficient material for three semesters and, with appropriate omissions, it is easily adapted to a two-semester sequence. Students should be familiar with algebra and trigonometry (a review is included in Appendix B). Ideally, they should have completed one semester of calculus; however, calculus may also be taken concurrently with this course. Derivatives are used sparingly in the early chapters in mechanics, and integrals appear for the first time in Chapter 7 (Work and Energy). The book is based on the SI system of units; the British system is rarely mentioned. Some of the features that are intended to enhance the appeal and effectiveness of the text are outlined below. Accuracy My primary objective has been to present concepts and principles clearly and correctly. I hope that the physics is free of even subtle misconceptions. In some optional sections I try to deal correctly with topics, such as the work-energy theorem for systems, that are inadequately treated in other texts. Attention is given to details such as the subtle question of signs in the application of Coulomb's law, in Faraday's law, or in Kirchhoff's loop rule for ac circuits. The concepts of emf and potential difference are clearly distinguished. The acceleration due to gravity and the gravitational field strength are given different symbols (although I do not dwell on this distinction). Writing Style I have tried to write in a simple, clear, and concise manner. This approach applies as much to the language as to the presentation of the mathematics and the notation used. The examples emphasize the important, or conceptually difficult, steps. Although the coverage is fairly complete, this textbook is significantly shorter than many that have appeared in recent years. Pedagogy I focus on central issues and highlight as few equations as possible (in the second color). Special cases, such as the "range formula" in projectile motion, are often discussed in an example and do not appear in the chapter summary. Also, I prefer not to present multiple versions of the same equation. For example, the intensity variation in the double-slit interference pattern appears only in terms of the phase difference (