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PANANTUKAN (Filipino Boxing).............................................. Class Information..................................................................... INJURIES................................................................................. POLICY ON BLOOD-BORNE PATHOGENS........................... KALI-SILAT OF ANDERSON CURRICULUM.......................... Range Awareness.................................................................... Basic Strikes............................................................................ The 64 count form.................................................................... Footwork................................................................................... Defenses.................................................................................. Sinawalli & Redonda................................................................ Flow Practice............................................................................ Knife......................................................................................... Empty hand.............................................................................. Applied Techniques.................................................................. Disarming Techniques.............................................................. Training Tips / Terminology / Staying Safe............................... The Rules of Survival............................................................... 12 Attack Target Template........................................................

Contents Introduction.............................................................................. SILAT........................................................................................ KALI.......................................................................................... KRAV MAGA............................................................................


Introduction Kali-Silat are Filipino and Indonesian martial arts systems. This system is not as widely recognized as some other martial arts, such as Karate or Judo, but its following here in the United States has grown considerably in the last few decades. Kali-Silat has enjoyed much attention in the last few years due to such films including "The Bourne Supremacy" series, and "The Hunted" starring Tommy Lee Jones, both of which employed Kali-Silat techniques in their fight scenes.

SILAT Pentjak Silat is considered one of the world's most effective and deadliest fighting systems. A close relative of Kali, the motion of Silat is extremely complimentary of the Filipino arts, and blends seamlessly into its fighting repertoire. These arts were designed for survival in real combat, not sport or tournaments. Some Silat systems specialize in close-quarters combat while others from a standing position, while others specialize in ground fighting, taking the attacker to the ground and using strikes, elbows, knees, nerve strikes, and locks. As with Kali, much of Silat is as cultural as it is martial, and you can find many of the Silat motions in cultural folk dancing of Indonesia, particularly Balinese dancing. There are literally hundreds, if not thousands of styles of Pentjak Silat, and theory, forms and techniques will differ from region to region. However, Silat is immediately recognizable by it's unique style of flow, use of elbows and knees, complex throws, and unusual body postures, as well as an effective approach to knife fighting. Emphasizing close-range fighting, unusual entry tactics and complex body mechanics, basic Silat is divided into two distinct categories: 1. Upper boy art 2. Lower body art It is an art of distinction, and position is the operative word, as many systems are designed for multiple attackers, with its ability of the Silat practitioner to take an opponent down from any posture or angle they enter from. The angles are fluid, and can take place anywhere from the inside centerline to the opponent's back while standing, squatting, kneeling or even sitting.

KALI The name Kali is seldom used in the Philippines and in most cases is an unknown word. The people who were learning this art depended on its effectiveness and simplicity for their survival. They were generally not martial artists or soldiers, just villagers who had to defend their land. They had to become proficient or


perish in battle. There was not time to teach a detailed and complex martial art if the village was under immediate threat. Therefore, good generic methods and solutions needed to be taught in the quickest time possible. This philosophy of simplicity is still used today and is the underlying base of Kali. In keeping with the philosophy of simplicity, most of the techniques are taught early in training. The student can pick what works for him/her and create their own style of combat. The basic principles are more important than raw numbers of techniques. The difference between an older practitioner and a newer one is not the knowledge of greater numbers of techniques, but rather in the skill of executing a smaller number of personally selected techniques As opposed to most martial art styles that spend years developing body control before you are allowed to touch weapons, Kali is weapons-based, and the beginning student learns the basics of wielding a stick as early as the first class. This requires you to learn body control, distance, & weapon control more quickly than you would in say, a Karate school. The art is centered around stick, knife, and empty hand training, and applies similar fighting theories for each. A common misnomer is using "stick fighting" to describe Kali, implying that it has no other value. Nothing could be further from the truth, as Kali employs a full system of empty hand skills, as well as many weapons skills that are readily transferable to empty hands. Another point of note is that the Filipinos make no excuses for their art. While most other martial arts systems in the world seek perfection of character and enlightenment through their art, Kali is the art of staying alive by destroying the attacker with whatever is at hand (improvised weapons). This is one of the reasons that this art has been so embraced by military special operational units. Although selfdevelopment and spiritual enlightenment are worthy and legitimate training objectives, Kali is a fighting art, developed exclusively for survival in combat. The focus of Kali-Silat is not "spiritual development", rather it is "self-preservation", and the instructors make no apology for the fact that they are teaching their students how to hurt someone.

Some of the basic principles of Kali-Silat are: •Using only the skills that are proven effective and can be easily taught. •Keeping the overall strategy simple. •Each practitioner keeps a small core of basic techniques suited to him. •Theories for weapons and empty hands are interchangeable. •Always keep the flow going.

KRAV MAGA The essence of Israel’s Krav Maga is purely tactical self-defense and surviving a real-life violent confrontation. This can be under any conditions in the street, the battle field or any other environment, regardless whether it is during a civil, law enforcement,


terrorist or military type scenario. Krav Maga isn’t about being a tough guy; it’s about going home alive no matter what the situation. Our purpose is not to compete with someone who fights in a ring or cage for a living. Generally, in most areas of the world, we do not regard or see these people as a principle threat or risk, as they are highly trained and disciplined athletes who rarely find themselves easily dragged into a common street brawl. Skilled fighters/ground fighters are exceptionally scarce and as a rule will evade such trouble if only to avoid injury. The common attacker and street hooligan has no such priorities. For conflict in the street Krav Maga has no rules of any sport origin, that means, no referees and includes biting, gouging the eyes, using incidental objects as weapons, breaking small joints and striking effectively with all available body weapons. This is reality and this is what Krav Maga is all about.

Krav Maga is a survival system dealing with personal safety issues in the context of defending against both armed and unarmed attackers. Krav Maga integrates instinct based self defense tactics with a strong curriculum that teaches aggressiveness, fighting spirit, situational awareness, and verbal de-escalation of conflict. Its anti terrorist roots make it aggressive by design, with only one objective…to eliminate the threat in the fastest way possible. It is considered a highly refined, street

fighting system designed to be utilized against street attacks, muggings, and sexual assaults. When an individual is attacked on the street there is no way to know how many opponents or weapons you might encounter. This Israeli system emerged in an environment where extreme violence is common place. In Israel , the style has become an important part of the educational system and is taught to elementary and high school students on the national curriculum. Krav Maga is the official system of handto-hand combat and self defense employed by the Israeli National Defense employed by the Israeli Defense and Security Forces, the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) including their Special Forces Units, Israeli Police, and Internal Security Branches. Krav Maga is also taught to; • Sky Marshals • Many United States local law enforcement agencies • Federal Agencies • State Police • SWAT Units • Military Special Ops Units


PANANTUKAN (Filipino Boxing) Panantukan, more commonly known as Filipino boxing employs all the upper body weapons to neutralize an opponent. The art, traditionally practiced without gloves, allows the practitioner to employ various parts of his body (fist, forearm, elbow) to neutralize parts of the opponents' body. This is more commonly known as limb destruction. By striking various nerve points and muscle tissue, partial paralysis occurs in the affected limb, thereby making it useless in combat. However, Panantukan also employs other weapons such as the shoulder (for ramming) and the head (for striking). Strikes are also not limited to the limbs. The ribs, spine, and the back of the neck are all valid targets in this art. Its value is proven in the many techniques that are found in Eskrima, Arnis and other weapon based styles which are derived from Panantukan, the most common being the limb destruction. Training Basics Shadow boxing serves many purposes to our training. It offers a chance to warm up the muscles, get the body coordinated and the mind focused. It is a tool for self analyzation of movement. Feeling our way through techniques repeatedly increases muscle memory and smooths transitions from techniques and combinations. Every technique used can be shadow boxed against an imaginary target. Creativity and visualization are utilized and developed as we express our techniques. Partner training Every technique and combination that is shadow boxed can be used with a partner, although care must be taken during training to prevent injuries. To aid in approximating an actual target and simulate an opponent, drills are done with a feeder and a responder. Particular responses are developed against various attacks and counters. Having a moving partner gives us the feel and tactile reinforcement that helps develop more realistic technique. Focus mitt training The same techniques and combinations used above are repeated but with the addition of focus mitts and bag gloves we can actually have our partner hold for techniques we can hit with force. The drills with focus mitts closely resemble the partner drills with some deviation for safety and economy of motion. Basic Attacks / Defenses •Hair pulling •Head push/manipulation •Eye gouging, ear rake or slap •Elbows, knees, foot stomp, head butts •Foot Work •HuBud (close range striking and parrying drills) trains a reflex response to stimuli of varying angles and pressure. •Elbows feed repeating elbows each side •Gun-ting (scissoring destructions, stop hits) •Inside •Outside •Other destructions •Elbow •Raking elbow: Used to snap across target •Jamming elbow: Combination of elbow and cover, a salute movement; attacks limbs, chest, or head


•Gouging •Body manipulations •Arm drag/dumag •Head push/rotate •Foot stomp/push Defenses •Cover •Catch •Jam •Destructions in conjunction with above or intercepting (elbow, knees

Class Information Adult Classes Classes for adults provide effective self-defense techniques that cover a broad spectrum of areas, including but not limited to; empty hand techniques, throws, immobilization techniques (joint locks), takedowns, grappling (groundwork), choke holds, blunt and edged weapons techniques, and disarms.

*Wilderness survival, *tracking and *escape and evasion techniques are available. They are taught under the supervision of Anthony Pratt, a decorated Navy Seal combat veteran. Class is structured so that a student will learn realistic self-defense techniques that have been designed specifically for "real world" encounters. Training not only encompasses the physical aspects of selfdefense but also encourages the student to develop a "warrior mentality" and to get rid of the victim mindset. The curriculum is substantial and covers a wide array of no-nonsense, hardcore techniques. We also offer several *specialized programs that, in my opinion (considering current world events) are beneficial and everyone should know a little something about. Classes are not available to anyone under the age of 13. (*Although these courses are included in the curriculum the average student is not required to participate in them. They are open to all students and interested individuals are required to sign up separately to attend the training.)

Common Challenges


Every student is encouraged to practice at their own pace and level. However, many beginners will experience some common difficulties that can be part of starting the training. The first difficulty is simply being a beginner. Everything will seem strange and difficult, and you will feel clumsy and out of place. Don’t worry. Beginners are supposed to be beginners. The advanced people will welcome the opportunity to help you with your practice, just as they were helped when they were beginners. Beginners often feel uncomfortable being attacked or acting the role of the attacker. However, the attack/defense process is a model for all of life’s challenges, and learning to handle feelings of discomfort in training is a way of finding how to handle some of life’s more difficult moments. We practice using pre-arranged attack/defense movement routines. These "drills" are meant to create a safe practice situation in which you can learn the basics, so that you have general patterns which you can intuitively and spontaneously modify to fit the specific requirements of a real attack. Drills are not meant to be actual combat. Some beginners have a hard time accepting corrections to their techniques. Try not to be ashamed of making mistakes. During practice, the instructor will ask people to help demonstrate the techniques to be practiced. Of course, someone has to act the role of the attacker in order for the instructor to demonstrate the defense. Many people feel shy about demonstrating in front of the class, but everyone gets used to it. It is an opportunity to participate and learn, but you can always ask not to be used if it makes you too uncomfortable. Another area of confusion has to do with individual learning styles. Everyone is different, and each person learns and teaches in his or her own unique way. You may find that some styles of practice don’t seem to “speak” to you and you may feel like avoiding them. Sometimes it is right to follow your intuition and practice the way you know you need to. However, if you avoid everything that is unfamiliar and confusing, you will miss out on new possibilities. Sometimes it is right to practice what you are shown, even when you don’t understand it or agree with it. Normally, proper class etiquette is to practice respectfully whatever is being taught in class. If you are engaged in a practice that you feel is more than you can handle, you have options. In most situations, the problem can be solved by asking your partner to “go easier.” But if this does not help, you can simply excuse yourself and move to practice with another partner or sit out the particular practice that is difficult for you. At the next immediate opportunity, you can resume normal practice. If there is some part of the practice that is too uncomfortable, talk with the instructor or the advanced students about it and they will help you find a way to deal with it. You may wish to put off doing that part of the practice until you have more experience. Usually it is possible to modify the training and make it more suitable for your stage of practice. In any case, as a beginner, you will never have to do anything that you don’t want to, and you will never be made fun of. If you experience a problem or conflict with a specific person during practice, you should talk with instructor directly about it, or you could talk with senior students if you would find that more comfortable. You could also arrange a meeting between you and the other person, with instructor present to help. Ask questions. If you have difficulties, talk with a senior student or the instructor off the mat when full attention can be given to your concerns. Most of all, don’t let the difficulties get you down...YOU ARE NOT ALONE.

PRACTICE / EXERCISES TO PERFORM AT HOME Many students ask what they can practice when they are not on the mat. There are countless numbers of drills and exercises that you can perform at home that will aid you in your study and advancement. Doing the basic stretching and breathing exercises at home will significantly improve your practice. Likewise,


paying attention to balance, centering and movement in all your daily tasks will be very helpful. There are numerous weapons drills that you can perform at home that are highly recommended. Feel free to talk to the instructor about different training methods and training devices that you can implement at home. *****It is of great importance that students come to me if there are ever any questions or concerns. If there is an issue that needs to be addressed, I will address it A.S.A.P.! However, I cannot give it the attention it deserves if I am unaware there is an issue. I have an open door policy and if a parent needs to speak with me and is unable to do so during class, they are always welcome to contact me at anytime by phone.*****

INJURIES Injuries occasionally occur. If you are injured, make sure to inform the instructor, both of the injury and the circumstances which led to the injury. Make sure to seek appropriate medical care when needed. Use common sense when injured. do not continue to train in any instance where it may make the injury worse. The instructor will determine whether or not the student may continue to train during that class depending on his assessment of any injury. HEALTH AND SAFETY For safety reasons, you must remove rings, jewelry and such. It is important that you trim your finger and toe nails short. However, precautions are important in dealing with all diseases. You are responsible not only for your own health and safety but also for the health and safety of your training partners. If you know or suspect that you have any illness which might affect or infect others, or which might impair your ability to train safely, you have the obligation to refrain from training until you are not a risk to others or yourself. POLICY ON BLOOD-BORNE PATHOGENS Every once in a while, someone will get scratched or cut during practice and bleed. We have adopted a policy to minimize the risk of transmission of HIV, Hepatitis-B, and other blood-borne diseases. It is important to realize, however, that current medical evidence suggests that the risk of transmission of HIV during the type of body contact that occurs in this training is extremely slight. Organizations such as the NCAA and the U.S. Olympic Committee have concluded that persons infected with bloodborne pathogens should not be barred from participating in contact sports. These organizations have concluded that the already-slight risk of transmission of HIV and other blood-borne diseases can be reduced further by adoption of the Center for Disease Control “universal precautions” with regard to exposed body fluids. In the dojo, we will observe these “universal precautions.” This means that instructors and students shall treat all exposed blood as if it were infected. First aid supplies will be available for most minor injuries (cuts, scratches, etc.).The following measures will be observed at all times: 1. Preparation for training: The most frequent points of contact between training partners are the hands. Other exposed parts of the body, which are subject to the risk of cuts and abrasions, are the feet and the area of the face and neck. For these reasons special precautions must be observed. Inspect the exposed parts of your body prior to training to ensure there are no breaks in your skin such as abrasions, open cuts or sores. If you have any breaks in your skin, clean them with a suitable antiseptic and cover them securely with a leak-proof dressing before coming on the training mat. Make sure that breaks in your skin stay covered while you are training. Suitable taping, gloves or socks


will be necessary. If you notice that someone else has an open cut or sore, immediately advise them of the fact and cease training with the individual until the appropriate covering is in place. If the person does not immediately remedy the situation, notify the class instructor immediately. Inspect your hands and feet to ensure that your fingernails and toenails are trimmed and smooth. 2. Procedure for wounds incurred during training: If a wound becomes uncovered, is open, or is bleeding even to a minor extent during training, immediately stop training and leave the mat until the bleeding stops and the wound is securely covered as described above. If you need assistance in stopping the bleeding and covering the wound, each person assisting you shall wear a pair of latex gloves (available in the first aid kit). All used gloves and bloody cloths or dressings will be placed in a leak-proof plastic bag and disposed of carefully. Hands shall be washed with soap and hot water immediately after gloves are removed. Minor blood stains on uniforms will be treated with the disinfectant solution kept by the first aid kit. If there are major blood stains, the uniform shall be removed immediately, placed in a leak-proof container, and handled carefully until it can be laundered or disposed of. There are NO exceptions! 3. Procedures for contact with another’s blood: If you come into contact with your practice partner’s blood, immediately alert your partner to the fact that they are bleeding, leave the mat and follow appropriate disinfectant procedures. If you do not know who is the source of the blood, immediately locate the individual who is bleeding. Then both of you should leave the mat and follow appropriate disinfectant and protection procedures. 4. Procedures for blood on the mat: The partner of the bleeding person should stand by the blood and ensure that other students do not come into contact with the blood on the mat. The bleeding person should leave the mat to attend to the bleeding. The blood, regardless of amount, should be cleaned up immediately by wiping down the exposed surface with the disinfectant solution provided for that purpose. Each person assisting in this task shall wear latex gloves and shall dispose of the gloves and clothes used for the cleanup in the manner described above. Upon completion of the cleanup, immediately after gloves are removed, each assisting person shall wash his or her hands with soap and hot water.

KALI-SILAT OF ANDERSON CURRICULUM The following is an outline of the entire curriculum. This curriculum contains techniques and principles


from the following schools / instructors: 1. Guru Bruce Ogle “The Indiana Kali-Silat Association International”. 2. Tuhon Leo Gaje, Jr. “Pekiti Tirsia Kali” 3. Danny Inasanto “Lacoste/Inosanto Blend Kali”. 4. The late Herman Suwanda “Mande Muda Pentjak Silat” 5. Krav Maga Ranking System We teach using a level 1 - 6 certificate system. This system is much easier for all of us. I never did like having to purchase a new belt every few months, and for us it is just not practical. The program also relies on a specific amount of required hours and or months that the student must complete in class before they may test for the next rank. The example of the certificate system listed below is currently in use... Practitioner Level #1, Practitioner Level#2, Graduate, Instructor, Expert Instructor and Master Instructor.

Warm Up Drills Can include single stick, double stick, flow exercises...instructors discretion. Range Awareness •Largo mano (long range) •Medio mano (mid range) •Corto mano (close range) •Corto-corto mano / Punyo mano (very close range) Basic Strikes •Labtik (follow through strike) •Witik (snap / pulling strike) •Redondo (flywheel / fully rotating strike) •Abiniko (rapid combo of witiks) •Punyo (short range pummel "butt-end" strike) The 64 count form

Footwork •Male / female triangles •Forward triangle •Reverse triangle •Replacement stepping / take-offs


•8 count •6 count •Diamond •Stepping Defenses

• Postures (The House) • Roof • Roof Shield • High Wing • High Wing Shield • Low Wing • Low Wing Shield • Drop Stick Deflection • Inside Deflection • Outside Deflection Defensive strikes 1-6

•3 counters (1 parry for 1 hit, 1 for 2, 1 for 3) Sinawalli & Redonda

• Heaven 6 • Upper 6 • Standard 6 • Figure 8 • lower 8 • Earth 6 • Double Umbrella • Hit The Floor • 6 count sumbrada Flow Practice

• Downward figure eight (7count) • Upward figure eight (7 count) • Witik (10 count w/partner) • Meet and flow (to basic 5 strikes) • Combat drills 1-6 Knife •Basic knife tapping •5 attack template •Target areas •Sensitivity drills


•Forehand cut •Backhand cut •Overhead cut thrust •Right clear / left clear •High pass / low pass •Sak sak (standard grip) •Pekal (reverse grip) •Guntings •Inside / outside cut & pass •High- low, low-high Empty hand •Gunting (striking) •Hands (closed fist, open fist, ect.) •Elbows •Trapping (empty hand exercises) •Kicking (knees, feet, ect.) •Low line, middle line, high line Applied Techniques * These items listed below represent a vast area of techniques within this curriculum. Due to the many techniques available they are presented here in a basic format to give the student a general idea of what will be covered. Takedowns Submission holds Throws Strangulation techniques Ground work (grappling)

Disarming Techniques

• The 6 gates • Types of Disarms (horizontal, vertical, inside, pull through, strips) • Principles of disarms • Disarming of bladed weapons • Disarming of handguns (revolvers, semi-autos, etc.) • Disarming of long guns (shotguns, assault rifles, etc.) • Dealing with a hand grenade


Training Tips / Terminology / Staying Safe

Striking Motions Lobtik - The long arc or stemmed blow, similar to the motion of a sword slashing through something. This is a full-powered strike that is aimed through a desired target. This method of striking does not retract or stop at the point of impact; rather it follows its path from beginning to end. This strike does not stop until it comes to the end of its motion, unless it is met with resistance or is blocked. A variation of this motion is the stem less blow, the shortened arc or stem less blow that is pulled inward halfway through the swing. Witik - The "rap" which is a blow that returns along the same path that it went out. This method of striking involves retraction, which is useful when switching directions or angles of attack. The advantage of this strike is its speed and uncertainty of where the next strike will come from. Faking maneuvers and multiple striking are all executed in the witik form. Saksak - The thrust or jab. Thrusting attacks primarily go right down the middle, but may occur at any angle. There are two types of energy that go into a thrusting motion. The first is much like a jab with the end of the weapon. With a jab equal emphasis is given to the striking and retracting motions. The motion of the jabbing thrust is much like that of the witik where the retraction flows directly into the next motion. The second kind of energy is the stab that suggests a weapon with a pointed tip such as a sword or dagger. The stabbing thrust is a fully committed killing move, delivered as a coupe de grace. The only place it might be used otherwise is as a body shot with a long or heavy blunted weapon. Abaniko - The abaniko strike is a fanning motion that is made with the stick. It is a witik strike that switches angles of attack. The abaniko can be executed horizontally, diagonally, or vertically. It is important that the body and arms move in sync to provide the proper mechanics needed for a powerful whipping motion. Many times the abaniko is used to fake or set-up your opponent, enabling you to pick your desired target area. Arko - The arko is the basic Escrima twirl or circle of the stick. The stick can be twirled in an upward or downward motion. Relax your hand but keep your fingers grasping the stick. Bantay Kamay - Bantay Kamay is the "Alive Hand “or your empty hand. This is the hand responsible for the checking or monitoring of your opponent's hand or the weapon itself. It is also used for disarming, striking, thrusting with a knife and passing. Footwork Escrima, and particularly Kali, use the symbol of the triangle to explain many of their combative principles. The core of the offensive and defensive movements is the knowledge of zoning and the skills in movement through footwork. Zoning - Zoning refers to movements made with the intention of effectively blocking or evading an opponent's strike. There are two reference points, at the beginning and at the end of a given motion. If someone were to strike you, his maximal force would be aimed at a specified area; for example, your face. At the points just before and just after the desired point of impact, there is considerably less force. This is because you have to build up the force needed to accelerate your weapon, and after the point of impact it is necessary to slow down to halt the momentum of your strike. It can be very dangerous to


attempt to block a strike at its point of full impact. It is best to either jam, meet the strike before it has built up full force, or pass, follow the weapon and employ a check during its retraction. A third method is to combine the two to make a meet and pass defense. Triangle stepping - A large percentage of footwork patterns are based on the triangle. There are both forward (female) and reverse (male) triangles. The forward triangle is generally used for defensive purposes and the reverse triangle is generally used for offensive movements. There are three points to a triangle: a frontal location, known as the point of the triangle, and two rear locations, known as the base of the triangle. When fighting, one generally places his stick or strong side on the point of the triangle and steps to either base of the triangle to initiate both offensive and defensive techniques. Replacement Stepping - Replacement stepping is the core of the defensive movements because in Kali one rarely steps back or retreats, instead one employs body shifting and zoning. When defending attacks to the left side of your body, it is better to have your right side forward, and vice verse. You can defend against an attack to your right with your right side forward if the timing does not allow replacement stepping; however, it is stronger and much safer to zone. This type of footwork is called replacement stepping because you are replacing the front foot with the rear foot. Although this is also triangle stepping, the distinction is made in order to emphasize its importance.

The Concept of Distance Distance can be defined as any distance from which your opponent can strike you with an edged, impact, or anatomical weapon. There are three main distances. Offensive as well as defensive strategies must be understood, developed, and mastered in each of the three ranges. The concept of distancing must be understood because there is no set numerical distance between each range, it is determined by the height of the opponent and the length of the weapons. Largo mano - meaning Long hand, represents the farthest distance at which you can strike or be struck by your opponent. It is a range at which your opponent cannot strike you with his weapon, but you can strike your opponent's hand with yours. Medio - meaning "medium," is the distance that you and your opponent are given the opportunity to strike one another in the head. Because of this danger, the alive hand is introduced. In other words, you can monitor your opponent's weapon hand with your free hand. Corto - meaning close or short, is the closest range that is encountered while standing. In this range, you are a bit too close to execute many of the actual striking techniques, with the exception of the punyo. Consequently, this is typically when disarms occur and unarmed combat ensues. The Alive Hand Guro Dan Inosanto once said, "If a good Escrimador were asked to point out the single most important aspect that makes his fighting work, chances are he would refer to the use of the alive hand." Most often, the alive hand is the one that holds the opponent's weapon hand or arm in place after the defensive motion has stopped or diverted the blow and is, therefore, a close-quarter tool. It is the transition between the fighter's defensive motion and his counterstrike. Without the alive hand holding the opponent's hand in place, his weapon might easily return again before the fighter has time to make his counterstrike. During the Spanish reign in the Philippines, and in combat situations where the ancient Filipinos fought against the Spanish in swordplay, the alive hand played an important part in confusing the Spanish swordplay. This was especially true in the southern Philippines where they were unconquered for 366 years. When the alive hand is not being used, it is generally kept near the center of your chest. Defang Drill This exercise introduces the concept of defanging the snake. You and your partner should each have a training knife and a glove for your knife hand. Your partner moves first by stepping in and feeding you an attack along one angle. Your mission is to cut


the incoming limb (aim for the glove) while backing away. The footwork is crucial: Don’t just stand in place and cut. If you happen to miss with your knife and you stay planted, your opponent’s next cut will most likely reach a vital part of your body. Run through the exercise slowly at the beginning, then speed it up as you become comfortable. Feed your partner different lines of attack—in some sort of order at first but then at random. The following are five basic angles of attack you can use: • Angle 1: Forehand slash or thrust, high (neck); angle downward. • Angle 2: Backhand slash, high; angle downward. • Angle 3: Forehand slash to body; horizontal (rib area). • Angle 4: Backhand slash to body; horizontal. • Angle 5: Straight thrust to abdomen. Your partner should feed you all five angles, then you do the same for him. This is not a sparring drill in which you and your partner try to attack and defend simultaneously, nor is it a “flow” drill in which each person alternates attacking and defending. Instead, one person defends while the other acts as a coach. This exercise is called the largo mano drill because as the defender, you are trying to stay out in long range where your opponent can’t reach you with his knife but you can cut his hand. As stated above, footwork is vital. Step backward, zone to the side, change your elevation—but keep moving. You may discover that against certain angles of attack, certain cuts work better while others get you cut. The important thing is to find what works for you. Cut-and-Check Drill This exercise familiarizes you with close-range blade work. It is not a preferred method of knife fighting per se, but it is an invaluable self-perfection exercise for sharpening your body mechanics, sensitivity and knife-handling ability. For simplicity, refer to the above-mentioned five basic angles of attack. Your partner feeds those five angles first, and you defend. Your checking hand should ensure that once you cut your opponent’s weapon hand, it doesn’t come back for another swipe. • Against angle 1: Cut the attacking arm with a forehand slash and check your partner’s knife hand with your free hand. Release your check before your partner goes on to the next strike. • Against angle 2: Cut the arm with a backhand strike and check the knife hand with your left hand. • Against angle 3: Pass your partner’s knife hand to the right (across his body) as you cut the arm with an angle 3. • Against angle 4: Pass your partner’s knife hand to the left as you cut the arm with an angle 4. (Note that your passing hand is also your checking hand; it should be monitoring what your partner’s weapon is doing.) • Against angle 5: Move your body to either side out of the path of the knife as you cut the attacker’s arm with an angle 3. You will find that your ability to avoid being cut, while at the same time cutting and controlling your partner’s weapon hand, can be greatly enhanced by using proper body mechanics. Twist left when you cut against an angle 1, and twist right when you cut and deflect an angle 2. Imagine that you are performing this exercise with razor-sharp knives and think about what you would do to avoid being cut. This is a fun drill that gives you a great workout while drawing out your killer instinct. Your objective is similar to that of the largo mano drill: Cut your opponent’s hand as he tries to cut you. The difference is that no one is feeding strikes; you’re both going for it. If a cut to the body happens to present itself, do it but don’t chase it. Try to stay in the relative safety of long range, making your opponent’s hand your primary target. Footwork and timing are essential elements, so be light on your feet. You will learn a lot if you spar with different people, especially those who are more experienced. A beginner is typically the easiest opponent, since he will probably use mostly simple direct attacks. A veteran knife


fighter will attack with combinations and, therefore, be more difficult to deal with. Make sure to maintain your distance and put together your own combinations. Knife-Defense Drill This is one of the best drills for learning to defend ourself with a blade because it forces you to use a training knife to fend off multiple opponents. The attackers are decked out in goggles, boxing gloves, elbow pads and, if desired, groin protection and shin pads. Start with a single opponent. He moves toward you with obvious bad intentions. Try not to let him touch you. Attack the body part that is closest to you— his arms if he’s trying to grab you. As soon as you get one or two good cuts, he should pull back for two to five seconds to simulate what would happen if you actually cut him in an encounter. After the pause, he should come in again for another attempt. Continue for one to three minutes. When you feel comfortable with this, add another attacker. It is important that no matter how many people are opposing you, they attack with conviction. This will trigger an adrenaline rush in you, and you should learn how to deal with its effect on your fine motor movements. Keep the following points in mind: • Do not focus exclusively on your attacker. Use your peripheral vision to determine if more bad guys are approaching. Look for a safe place to run to. • Keep moving. Use your footwork to keep someone from sneaking up behind you. Get your back to a wall if possible. Do not run into the middle of two or three attackers because they will swarm on you. Keep maneuvering so you must deal with only one at a time. • Don’t panic. While the attack is happening, extend your awareness so you can tell where the attackers are without turning to look. Joy of Discovery There is so much more to knife fighting than could ever be presented in one article. The four exercises presented here could keep you busy for years. Remember that the purpose of edged-weapons training is not necessarily to learn a lot of techniques with the knife. It is more about embracing the concept of equalizing the odds. Whether or not you ultimately decide to carry a blade for self defense, the principles and concepts of knife fighting will give you a tremendous edge in all areas of your life. Stick & Blade The Philippine fighting arts are all about efficiency. When a skilled practitioner swings a stick, he strives to eliminate all unnecessary movement as he executes fluid offensive and defensive combinations. When he wields an edged weapon, he endeavors to apply the same principles he learned for the stick, and if they don’t transfer directly, he’ll alter them bit by bit until they do. Not surprisingly, many practitioners believe you should practice with a stick the same way you train with a knife or sword. Although that’s not possible 100 percent of the time, the best training tips and action principles pertain to both facets of the art. The following nine morsels of advice fall into that category of crossover application. They’re sure to supercharge the effectiveness of your stick and knife skills. Keep Your Knuckles Facing Forward When you hold a knife or sword using a standard grip, the blade faces outward from the front of your fist. Therefore, when you’re using a stick, you should hit with the "front" of it as well. The benefits are twofold: It helps you develop edge awareness, and it encourages you to use a grip that will transfer the force of a blow into your palm and not against your thumb and fingers, thus reducing the chance that you’ll drop the weapon. Bad habit: In competition, practitioners frequently execute fanning strikes with their sticks. Such techniques can be fast, but if they become habitual and you try them with a sword, you won’t hit with the edge of the weapon. Although the resulting strike with the flat portion of the blade can be used as a parry or a distraction before a follow-up slash, it has limited usefulness. Don’t Grab the Stick In most weapons-based systems, the "alive hand"—the one not holding the weapon—plays an important


role. Some practitioners even insist that skill with the alive hand is as important as skill with the weapon. As you focus on maximizing the potential of your alive hand in combat, avoid using it to grab your opponent’s stick. Use that technique against an opponent armed with a blade and you’ll immediately know why. That advice also pertains to the "stick wrap" and "snake disarm." While those techniques can be effective for trapping or disarming an opponent who has a blunt weapon, if he’s holding a real blade, all he has to do is move it around a bit and you’ll be cut to ribbons. If you must use a wrap or snake disarm, do it on his arm. Then get a joint lock on the entangled limb or hold it long enough to land a few strikes. The exception: When you must defend against a sword or machete being thrust at you, it’s sometimes advisable to slap the blade. That’s because if you reach for his hand, the point of his weapon might penetrate your body. Furthermore, if you parry the blade, you have a 50/50 chance of slapping one of its flat sides. Even if you lose that gamble and get cut, it probably won’t be that serious unless you have a close encounter with the point. Don’t Always Train for a Duel Most of the sumbrada flow drills taught in the Philippine arts are designed to build your skills and accustom you to combative movement. To ensure that you don’t restrict your own growth, occasionally forgo the stick-vs.-stick and hand-vs.-hand duels in favor of mixed combinations. Try using a knife against your partner’s stick. In no time you’ll become more aware of your body and learn just how universal movements can be. Fringe benefit: You can also apply this concept to sparring. Try using a stick to fend off your partner’s continuous knife attacks, then ditch it and go with your empty hands. Of course, you’ll need to approach this exercise in a careful and controlled manner, but once you do, you’ll realize how dangerous weapons truly are and that an armed opponent should be confronted only if you have no alternative. Go Empty Hand Against Street Weapons Defending against weapons is one of the most important facets of the martial arts. The reason is simple: Modern laws often prohibit good guys like you from carrying a weapon—the bad guys, of course, don’t obey the law—and even if you do have one in your pocket, there’s no guarantee you’ll be able to access it in time. Therefore, you should concentrate on developing your street smarts with respect to weapons defense, and the best time to do that is during training. With only your empty hands, face off against an opponent who may or may not be armed. Make a conscious effort to keep your eyes on his hands. If he keeps them out of view, he may be hiding a weapon and preparing to surprise you with it. Your awareness and your empty-hand counter weapon skills are what will keep you alive. Back up your plan with techniques for controlling and disarming an opponent. Best philosophy: Surprise your enemy by making your defense less of a reaction and more of an ambush. Don’t Make Grappling Your Main Strategy Because knife assaults often start at close range, you should know how to grapple with an armed adversary, but remember that grappling with edged weapons is not like grappling in competition. If someone has a knife, once you close the distance, it’ll be over in seconds—usually with one or both of you severely injured. Long-range goal: As you train against knife and stick attacks, strive to maintain the distance between yourself and your opponent as youstrike at him. Aim to inflict cumulative damage. If he’s overly aggressive, however, be ready to fall back on your close-range combat and grappling skills. If you’re unarmed, you most likely will have to grapple. Stay out of range long enough to distract him, then quickly close the gap. Your first goal is to control and neutralize the weapon, then the opponent. Use the Witik and Abanico Strategically The witik is a quick snapping motion also known as the snap cut. It’s used at long range to cause cumulative damage and psychologically unbalance an opponent—often as a counter-cut. A snap cut to the hand done with a heavy, sharp blade can cause serious damage. One delivered to the inside of the wrist can take the appendage out of commission. That effectiveness comes with a price, however, for it


will often leave you open to a counter. The abanico is similar to the snap cut but uses a quick fanning motion that doesn’t always strike with the edge of the weapon. Although it’s weaker, it offers the advantage of speed. It may not always inflict a great amount of damage, but it can protect you while it opens your adversary for a more telling blow. Tournament caveat: The abanico is frequently seen in competition as two martial artists stand toe-to-toe and fan each other’s heads, but if that were attempted in combat, both fighters would be in big trouble. Remember that protective equipment and the drive to score more often than your opponent can lead to risky tactics that would get you killed in a real knife fight. Train the Thrusting Lines A popular adage in the knife world is, slashes injure while thrusts kill. It’s widely believed that 80 percent of the knife attacks that occur on the street are slashes but most kills are effected with multiple stabs. Obviously, it behooves you to learn how to defend against slashing motions but not at the expense of the time you devote to countering deadly thrusts. Corroborating quote: English sword master George Silver once said the art of the sword relies on both the cut and the thrust, but in single combat the thrusting rapier is considered king. Use Slicing Motions When practicing your slashes, don’t let tunnel vision make you do only full-power strokes. Although they’re fine techniques that have their place in combat, you must also hone your drawing and slicing skills. When your weapon hits its target, pull it back toward your body while it’s still in contact with your opponent. That will maximize the pain inflicted by a blunt object and the depth of the cut inflicted by a blade. Plain English: Sometimes sawing through a tree trunk is better than chopping at it. Never Think You Can Predict Combat Fighting is fluid and chaotic. Your opponent won’t just stand still and let you poke and slash at him. Therefore, no matter whether you’re wielding a stick or a blade, you shouldn’t be totally confident every technique will work. The best way to prepare yourself for all the uncertainties of fighting is to work on drills that teach principles. That way, you’ll learn movement instead of moves. Among the most beneficial methods are flow drills, free-flow sessions, sparring, full-contact tire and target striking, and controlled freestyle training against multiple opponents. Metaphysical leap: You’ll learn to embrace chaos in training so you can face chaos in battle. Improvising Weapons If you look for them, in many situations you’ll be able to make your own weapons out of common objects found nearby. A brick or bottle can stop a charge. Breaking off a radio antennae can also give you a weapon. And whipping off your belt can provide a buckle to strike with or a tool for tying up an attacker’s hands. Ink pens can also be used. Pulling one from your pocket and jabbing it into the attacker’s eyes, ears, throat, groin or other vulnerable areas can give you a quick advantage. Keys can be used in the same way. Flashlights can also be used as a jabbing or striking tool. Hot liquids can be effective when available. A steaming cup of coffee thrown into the face of an attacker can temporarily blind him. Follow this up with a good combination and you’ll have a good chance of buying some time and gaining an advantage. Be creative. Stay cool. Assess the situation and use whatever means are available to turn the tide. And always get out when possible. Your goal should be to hit and escape, unless your life or family’s life depends on your continuing the fight. Mass Attack When facing off against superior numbers, there are no magic defenses. If you can talk yourself out of the situation, do so. But if you can’t, you should prepare for some pain. In a “2 against 1” or “3 against 1” situation somebody’s probably going to get a shot at you. Prepare to be hurt and fight through the pain to make your escape or emerge in victory. As far as drills for mass attack, there aren’t any that would prepare you totally for what you’d meet. Real fight situations aren’t choreographed. Predictable punches or kicks aren’t thrown. There’s no “golden rule” for your defense. But there are some concepts that can


help. Here are a few suggestions: 1. Put yourself in a position where you can deal with one attacker while he blocks the other from getting to you. In short, get one guy in the way of another. This is called angulation. 2. Don’t put your back against a wall. If you allow your attackers to close you in you’ll have to deal with all of them at once. Your goal here is to try and set things up so you only have to deal with one at a time. 3. If only one attacker comes at you, deal with him and maneuver so he ends up in the middle of the path between you and the other attackers. This will buy you some time before you have to deal with another attacker. 4. Hit the first attacker as hard and fast as you can. Remember the importance of violence of action, surprise and creating the momentary impression of superior firepower. You want these guys to know immediately that they’ve made a mistake by singling you out and that you’re not going to play the “victim” role for them. If you can hit that first guy and throw him into the second guy, do so. It may give you just enough time for an escape. OVERVIEW Anyone can learn to use self defense techniques, but they’ve got to put some time in if they want to make them a solid part of their personal defense strategy. Full contact practice and sparring are very important. You must learn how to take and give a punch. You’ll be surprised what you can discover about yourself and your ability to use these techniques simply through the process of trial and error in practice sessions. And don’t forget to train in a variety of settings and conditions so you’ll be ready to respond properly when it’s needed. Again, alertness and awareness of your surroundings is the foundation on which all these techniques are founded. You can’t walk around like a victim. Almost all trouble can be avoided by simply staying in “Condition Yellow” and steering away from danger. But if you do find yourself in trouble, you must turn into a warrior. The ability to hit and keep hitting until you need not hit any more is the key to survival.

The Four Levels of Mental Readiness To be able to deal effectively with your security or answer a possible violent attack you must be switched “on” and alert to what’s going on around you. In the military, soldiers are taught different “Conditions of Readiness” in a color code system that approximate different levels of awareness a normal human being experiences. Your response to any situation is largely determined by the “condition” you’re in at the time. You obviously don’t want to live your life oblivious to the world around you and become a walking target. On the other hand, it’s not practical or appropriate to live it with your finger on a trigger. The color code system below is designed to help you set up a proper “mindset” for security in your own daily world. CONDITION WHITE-This first “condition of readiness” really has nothing to do with “readiness” at all. Still, it’s the state of mind that most people spend their lives in. In Condition White we don’t expect any trouble. Nor do we look for it. We feel and act perfectly trustful and safe. We’re largely unaware of our surroundings and the things taking place there. We don’t believe anything will happen to us. Too bad it often does. Condition White is the state of readiness of most victims. It’s also the state that criminals love to see you in. CONDITION YELLOW-This is the condition you should be in when in any public or otherwise unsecured state. It’s the mental equal of the yellow “stoplight” you’ll see downtown. It dictates that you should proceed with caution. You should be aware of what’s going on around you. You should know who’s behind you and stay more than an arm’s length away from strangers. You must also be aware of any instinctual feelings of danger. Because we live in a “civilized” world we’ve allowed many of our basic survival instincts to atrophy but, with practice, we can reacquire them. When you feel something is “wrong” you


shouldn’t dismiss it as “just my imagination”. You should go on alert and do everything you can to fully analyze the situation for danger and act appropriately on the information you receive. Some people may consider Condition Yellow that of a “paranoid” but it’s not. It’s just common sense. You’re not jumping at the sight of your own shadow. You’re just in a state of relaxed, yet heightened awareness. Its basics are simple. Keep your head up and eyes wide open as you walk. Lock doors and have keys ready as you approach a door. Park in a well lighted area. Be prepared to go out of your way to avoid any dangerous looking person or situation. One of the good things about Condition Yellow is that you can stay in it indefinitely without having to worry about overdoing it or exhausting yourself. Security guards are always in Condition Yellow. So should anyone carrying a weapon. In fact, we believe that every person should remain in a form of Condition Yellow in any public or unsecured situation. This merely acknowledges that it’s not always a friendly world out there and keeps you alert just in case any danger is encountered or any response necessary. CONDITION ORANGE- At this level, you realize that something is definitely wrong. There’s danger. You’re in a state of alarm. You must either move away or prepare for action. Words of warning, like “Stop,” may be offered in this condition. You’re either in the act of escaping or preparing to launch a response that will be delivered with maximum speed and aggressiveness. You’re ready for combat. If you’re carrying a pistol, it remains holstered but a careful, controlled shot can be delivered from this state in about three seconds. CONDITION RED- In Condition Red, action is imminent. As soon as the threat is apparent, you make your move. Whatever response or blow you’ve been preparing is delivered with total commitment and aggression. It’s important to realize here that you can’t just “resist a little”. You’ve got to show your attacker that you mean business. Only your pre-set checks, determined by your overall situation or target discrimination, will stop you once you enter this level of readiness. You’re one second from getting off a controlled shot if carrying a pistol. As an individual interested in personal and family security you should strive to stay in Condition Yellow as you proceed through the streets and neighborhoods of your town. It’s in the White zone that you’re at your most vulnerable. Most victims never would have been victims if they’d have been in the heightened state of awareness defined by Condition Yellow before the attack. In Condition Yellow you’ll be able to foresee many problems before they actually occur. If you’ve got your head up and you’re looking around, you’ll notice those people suspiciously hanging around your car in the parking lot well before you get there. You’ll see that unfamiliar vehicle full of strangers parked across the street before they rush you. You’ll let that hostile looking joker ahead of you on the street know that you’re awake, alive and not an easy mark. If you’ve got your head down with your mind visibly lost in the clouds, you’re going to be easy pickings. It’s essential to show people through your body language and alertness that you’re aware of what’s going on around you. Most criminals are looking for someone they can punish and exploit easily. If you look like you’ve got them under surveillance and you’re ready to react, there’s a good chance they’ll leave you alone in favor of somebody who’ll be an easier target.

The Rules of Survival

“Condition Yellow” lays the foundation for the 7 basic “Rules Of Survival” you should strive to live with. These rules have been devised to keep you from danger or get you out of it if combat becomes unavoidable. They all blend together and it’s important that you see them as overlapping parts of a whole. Perfecting the individual components will only get you so far. If, for instance, you remain alert (rule 1) without acquiring the ability to act decisively (rule #3) or with violence of action (#4) you’ll be missing a lot in your personal defense equation. All 7 of the “rules” below must be followed to give you the best chance


of providing a secure environment for your family and yourself. While combat should be seen as a last resort, you must also dedicate yourself to the principle that you will do what is necessary for your safety and that of your loved ones in that situation. If you have any doubts about confronting an attacker with maximum force and commitment, you’re only going to be confused and hamstrung when the real thing comes along. YOU HAVE TO MAKE UP YOUR MIND NOW THAT YOU WILL DO WHATEVER IS NECESSARY TO PREVAIL AND SURVIVE WHEN BATTLE IS IMMINENT AND UNAVOIDABLE. Once you’ve made up your mind to do what’s necessary, following the 7 rules below will go a long way toward keeping you alive and well. They served us well during our own combat and military experiences around the world and we’ve found them to be just as critical to issues of safety and survival in the modern civilian world. Rule #1: Stay Alert! As described above, you should strive to stay in “Condition Yellow”. This will come naturally to some people but others will have to work harder at it. Whatever, it’s absolutely necessary. Alertness is the key component on which all the other Rules of Survival are built. If you don’t know what’s going on around you, your ability to steer around danger or successfully respond to it will be severely affected. Along this line, you should keep three allied principles in mind: 1. Maintain 360 degree surveillance. 2. Take nothing for granted. 3. Look for anything that may be out of place. First, you’ve got to know what’s behind you. It’s not enough to be aware of what’s ahead. You’ve got to develop “eyes in the back of your head” or get in touch with those “survival instincts” most of us have lost. If something tells you there’s trouble behind, turn around and look. Set up a 360 degree perimeter and refuse to be taken by surprise. Second, you should be careful not to relax or take anything for granted. Don’t expect a familiar street corner or scene to be safe just because you’ve been there before. Keep your guard up. Likewise, smiling or seemingly friendly strangers can turn unfriendly very quickly. This doesn’t mean that you should look on everybody as a criminal. It just means that you shouldn’t settle for analyzing surface appearances. The rule here is that anybody, even a pro, can let their guard down and it’s funny how fast trouble can find you when you do. Never, ever be lulled into a false sense of security. Crime can strike virtually anywhere. Which brings us to our third point. Always be looking for things or people who seem out of place. If there’s a group of young men ahead watching you silently as you move down a street or through a mall, be on guard. Likewise, anyone who’s on the move after watching you come into view should be suspect. In fact, anyone who adjusts his behavior toward yours or begins to shadow you in any way should be viewed critically. Always make full use of your senses, especially the most important sense of all“common sense”. If you’re in a tight crowd and smell somebody with alcohol on their breath, you’d best begin to heighten your guard. We know from past experience that drunks don’t think very well. They do and say things they don’t normally do. They like to show off for their fellow drunks. Whatever the case, you want to avoid them. If you’re in a public place, like a restaurant, keep an eye on the people coming through the door. If you see a guy arrive looking like a pregnant man with an overcoat on a sunny day, you may have a problem. Sit with your back against a wall and close to an exit. Come up with a plan, especially when you’ve got your family with you. Play the war game. “What would I do if…?” If you’re carrying a weapon, how will you use it? How can you best get your family out? Where are the escape routes? This way, if something happens, your response is pre-programmed in your mind. It only takes a few seconds to play “what if?” and it’s well worth your time. It could save your life some day. And don’t just go to sleep while inside your home and think nobody’s going to target you. You can be victimized just as well there. Realize that anyone approaching your home that you don’t know could present a problem. And if someone shows up claiming to be a repairman or some kind of official, and you didn’t call him, don’t let him in until your sure of his motivation. Credentials can be forged very easily. Think of your mind as a computer. You should be constantly loading it with a data base so you can react. You should be taking everything in, analyzing it and planning your possible response. If something seems out of the ordinary, this should key a red flag in your mind. That doesn’t mean you should draw your gun or pepper spray. But it means you should key in on any subsequent red flags. It could be as simple as someone walking toward you with


their hands in their pockets. Maybe the guy’s just keeping his hands warm or adjusting his crotch. On the other hand the inability to see a man’s hands should trip off an initial red flag. You don’t know what’s in those hands. As he approaches, the control center in your brain should be taking in information and spitting out advisories. Is he moving forward aggressively? Does he have a distressed look on his face? Is he posturing? What does his body language indicate? Obviously, at some early point, you should do what’s necessary to alter your path if something seems wrong. Go right or left or retrace your steps. Leave the scene. But if this is impossible, you should be preparing for a confrontation. If he flashes a gun or knife, you should locate your weapon for a defensive strike. If he shows that he’s open handed, you should begin locating your pepper spray, kubotan or picking out a strike point on the attacker. It’s all a combination of threat assessment and response preparation cued by the central computer inside your brain. As the situation plays itself out, you’re constantly assessing the threat and preparing your response. Your goal should be escape. If you can get out of harm’s way and go on your merry way, do it. If you just want to deliver an eye gouge or plant a foot to kick the guy’s nuts up into his throat, that’s fine. Just be ready to be on the move as soon as the blow lands and your opponent is temporarily incapacitated. As you take our course you may want to begin to define your own “personal perimeter”. A “personal perimeter” is the area around your body within which you feel uncomfortable having another person inside. It varies from person to person. Some people are comfortable with 3 feet, others 6. My own personal perimeter is 5 feet because I know that I can strike at that distance and be effective if I need to. Whatever your “perimeter” is, you should be ready to strike an open-handed attacker once he gets within this distance. That’s the “too close for comfort” zone.


12 Attack Target Template