Jazz Scales Workbook_ A Roadmap - Daniel Fedele.pdf

Jazz Scales Workbook Daniel Fedele www.jazzlanguageworkbooks.com Jazz Scales Workbook Copyright © 2007-2018 Daniel Fe

Views 12 Downloads 0 File size 3MB

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Recommend stories

Citation preview

Jazz Scales Workbook Daniel Fedele

www.jazzlanguageworkbooks.com

Jazz Scales Workbook Copyright © 2007-2018 Daniel Fedele Translated by Daniel Fedele All rights reserved

Contents 1

Jazz scales: a roadmap

4

Introduction to jazz improvisation

9

Jazz scales: a roadmap in C

10

The major scale: melodic traits -model-

11

Major scales -model-

12

Major scales -template-

13

Major scale: melodic patterns in C -model-

14

Major scale: melodic patterns in C -template-

15

Major scale: how to study the melodic patterns

16

The modes of the major scale in C -model-

17

The modes of the major scale in C -template-

18

Avoid notes in the modes of the major scale -model-

19

Avoid notes in the modes of the major scale -template-

20

Basic syncopated rhythmic patterns -model-

21

Syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations

22

Syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations with the major scale

23

Major and minor (blues) pentatonic scales -model-

24

Major and minor (blues) pentatonic scales -template-

25

Pentatonic scales: how to study

28

Major pentatonic scale: melodic patterns in C -model-

29

Minor pentatonic scale: melodic patterns in C -model-

30

Major bebop scale: fundamentals

31

Major bebop scale: melodic patterns in C -model-

32

Major bebop scales in all keys -model-

33

Major bebop scales in all keys -template-

34

Mixolydian scales -model-

35

Mixolydian scales -template-

36

Mixolydian scale: melodic patterns in C -model-

37

Mixolydian scale: melodic patterns in C -template-

38

Mixolydian bebop scale: fundamentals

39

Mixolydian bebop scale: melodic patterns in C -model-

40

Mixolydian bebop scales in all keys -model-

41

Syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations with the mixolydian scale

42

Dorian scales -model-

43

Dorian scales -template-

44

Dorian scale: melodic patterns in C -model-

45

Dorian scale: melodic patterns in C -template-

46

Dorian bebop scale: fundamentals

47

Dorian bebop scale: melodic patterns in C -model-

48

Dorian bebop scales in all keys -model-

49

Syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations with the dorian scale

50

Jazz scales: how to study I

51

Jazz scales: how to study II

53

Jazz scales: a roadmap in F

54

Major scale: melodic patterns in F

55

Jazz scales: a roadmap in Bb

56

Major scale: melodic patterns in Bb

57

Phrygian scales -model-

58

Phrygian scales -template-

59

Lydian scales -model-

60

Lydian scales -template-

61

Lydian scale: melodic patterns in C

62

Aeolian scales -model-

63

Aeolian scales -template-

64

Locrian scales -model-

65

Locrian scales -template-

66

Locrian scale: melodic patterns in C

67

The modes of the melodic minor scale -model-

68

The modes of the melodic minor scale in C -model-

69

Melodic minor scales -model-

70

Melodic minor scales -template-

71

Melodic minor scale: melodic patterns in C

72

Lydian augmented scales -model-

73

Lydian augmented scales -template-

74

Lydian dominant scales -model-

75

Lydian dominant scales -template-

76

Lydian dominant scale: melodic patterns in C

77

Locrian +2 scales -model-

78

Locrian +2 scales -template-

79

Locrian +2 scale: melodic patterns in C

80

Diminished whole tone scales -model-

81

Diminished whole tone scales -template-

82

Diminished whole tone scale: melodic patterns in C

83

Symmetric scales -model-

84

Symmetric scales -template-

85

Whole step-half step diminished scales -model-

86

Whole step-half step diminished scales -template-

87

Whole step-half step diminished scale: melodic patterns

88

Half step-whole step diminished scales -model-

89

Half step-whole step diminished scales -template-

90

Half step-whole step diminished scale: melodic patterns

91

Whole tone scales -model-

92

Whole tone scales -template-

93

Whole tone scale: melodic patterns

94

Chromatic scale: melodic patterns

95

Harmonic minor scales -model-

96

Harmonic minor scales -template-

97

Harmonic minor scale: melodic patterns in C

98

Scales study with melodic pattern

99

Scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern

100 Scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns I 101 Scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns II 102 Scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns III 103 Scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns IV 104 Jazz language: phrasing 105 Scales study with forward motion 106 Jazz language: articulations 107 Scales study with articulations 108 Scales study with chromatics 109 Jazz language: embellishments 110 Scales study with embellishments 111 Jazz language: clichés 112 Scales study with jazz clichés 113 Scales study in relation to rhythm 114 Jazz language: ghost notes

115 Scales study with swing 116 Jazz language: pivoting 117 Scales study with pivoting 118 Jazz language: step and skip 119 Scales study with skips 120 Major II-V-I: scale options in C -model121 Minor II-V-I: scale options in C -model122 Pentatonic scales: scale options over the major II-V-I progression -model123 Pentatonic scales: scale options over the minor II-V-I progression -model124 Bebop scales: scale options over the major II-V-I progression -model125 Bebop scales: scale options over the minor II-V-I progression -model126 Transformation of the major scale melodic line 128 100 ways to play the major scale 136 Scales memorization: F mixolydian -model137 Scales memorization: F mixolydian -template138 Scales memorization: F dorian -model139 Scales memorization: F dorian -template140 Dominant blues in F: scale options -model141 Dominant blues in F: scale options -template142 Minor blues in C: scale options -model143 Minor blues in C: scale options -template144 Blues in all keys -template145 Rhythm Changes in Bb -model146 Rhythm Changes in Bb: B section -model147 Rhythm Changes in Bb: B section -template148 Rhythm Changes in all keys -template149 Scales study organization: C instruments -template150 Scales study organization: Eb instruments -template151 Scales study organization: Bb instruments -template152 Melodic patterns in all keys - template153 Notes I 154 Notes II

Jazz Scales: A Roadmap

I don´t reccomend playing the scales in all keys from the beginning, it´s too much information and difficult to memorize. I prefer to follow this roadmap:

1. Play C major, mixolydian and dorian scales over play-a-longs. Memorize their formulas: Major:

1234567

Mixolydian:

1 2 3 4 5 6 b7

Dorian:

1 2 b3 4 5 6 b7

Play the melodic patterns.

Visualize the notes to facilitate adding new scales comparing them with the major scale in C.

2. Play major and minor pentatonic scales in C. Memorize their formulas: Major: 1 2 3 5 6 Minor: 1 b3 4 5 b7

-1-

Add blue notes: b3 in major: 1 2 b3 3 5 6 +4 in minor: 1 b3 4 +4 5 b7.

Play over play-a-longs. Memorize. Add syncopated rhythmic patterns and articulations.

3. The most common keys played in jazz standards are F and Bb, D and G for Eb instruments and G and C for Bb instruments. Eb instruments: Play D and G as indicated above in 1 and 2. Memorize.

Bb instruments: Play G as indicated above in 1 and 2. Memorize.

4. Play the dominant keys that we haven´t played yet: A mixolydian scale (dominant of D) D mixolydian scale (dominant of G)

5. Play the keys needed in each new standard: Eg: Summertime in D-

Eb instruments: play B dorian scale Bb instruments: play E dorian scale

-2-

6. Memorize using the first scales played as a reference.

We should be able to transpose from memory all the melodic patterns to each new scale.

Summary: C instruments: must master the major, mixolydian, dorian and pentatonic scales in C, Bb, F and D with bebop passing tones before studying the rest of the keys. Eb instruments: must master the major, mixolydian, dorian and pentatonic scales in A, G, D and B with bebop passing tones before studying the rest of the keys. Bb instruments: must master the major, mixolydian, dorian and pentatonic scales in D, C, G and E with bebop passing tones before studying the rest of the keys.

daniel fedele

-3-

introduction to jazz improvisation 

a musical scale is a series of sounds organized in a specific way.



  

 











the major scale is the most played scale in western music.

  







scales generate chords.

 

 

 











 

 

 

 

 

given a chord, the improvisor selects the most consonant scale with that chord.

         major scale

C







chord



the scale can generate different melodic patterns. chords

thirds

chromatics

                       



melodic lines are built with added melodic patterns generated by the scale. chromatics

+ thirds

+ chords

+ thirds + chromatics

                 



 -4-

introduction to jazz improvisation - 2/5



syncopated rhythmic patterns differentiate modern music from classical music.

                 





 the improvised melodic line is a combination of melodic patterns and syncopated rhythmic patterns.                         

articulations add personality to the improvised melodic line.

                      





                            





embellishments add expression to the improvised melodic line.

grace note



trill

clichés are stereotyped expressions that, although commonplace, are constantly repeated.

                              Miles Davis, "The Theme"



3



dynamics are variations of volume of the melodic line.

                             mp

f

mp

f



mp

-5-

introduction to jazz improvisation - 3/5



swing is the intention each note is played with and generates the authentic jazz sound. ghost note

ghost note

                               mp

f



mp

mp

 the improvised melodic line is composed of melodic patterns + syncopated rhythmic patterns + articulations + embellishments + clichés + dynamics + swing.

                             mp



f



mp

mp

phrasing is the placement of the melodic lines in different beats of the bars.

            



the best way to organize the phrasing in order to generate a sense of forward motion is placing the melodic lines in an arch that goes from up beats to down beats.

                              mp

f

mp



mp

-6-

introduction to jazz improvisation - 4/5

 different scales generate different chords. 









mixolydian scale

major scale

            V7 I C

   

G7

   

 

 the improvised melodic line now is built with two different scales, each one with its own melodic and syncopated rhythmic patterns, plus articulation, embellishments, dynamics and swing.

swing





V7 G7

I C



           

3

2

1

3

5 b7

mixolydian scale

  



3

T9

7



1

major scale

functional harmony classifies chords with tonal functions. ii-v-i is the most common chord progression in jazz. the subdominant-dominant-tonic movement is the total expression of the musical journey. dorian scale (mode ii of the major scale)

mixolydian scale (mode v of the major scale)

        II-7 D-7

V7 G7tritone

dark semistable

bright unstable

   

subdominant

   



major scale

      I C

  

dominant

tritone resolution

clear stable



 

tonic

X subdominant chords include the fourth degree of the scale, they are semistable and prepare the harmonic movement. X dominant chords include an augmented fourth interval called tritone that generates tension and instability. X tonic chords include the 1-3-5 triad, resolve the tritone and generate stability.

-7-

introduction to jazz improvisation - 5/5

 the improvised melodic line now is built with three different scales, each one with its own melodic and rhythmic patterns plus articulation, embellishments, dynamics and swing. dorian scale



mixolydian scale



major scale

C     G7                        

D-7

mp

f

mp

f



mp

 a first approach to improvising over a fast chord movement consists in playing the improvised melodic line using the major scale of the tonal center. a second approach would be to play major and mixolydian and a third one, dorian, mixolydian and major. 1 2 3

major scale

 major scale  mixolydian scale  I dorian scale major scale D-7 G7 C C                   mixolydian scale

 choosing non diatonic scales adds tension to the sound of the melodic line.           diminished scale

C     G7                       

D-7

mp

f

mp

f



mp

"improvisation is the spontaneous reorganization of the resources previously learned" -8-

jazz scales: a roadmap in c 1

major scale

         1

2

2

4

5

6

7

8





 



b6

mixolydian scale

1

2

5

3

4

5

b7

6

8

  





7

dorian scale

1

3





5

7

T9



4 T13 avoid note

C7

 1

 



b3

  b2

seventh chord



 3

5









b7

T9

tensions





4

T13



b3

2

4

5

C-7

 

  b2









 







5

6

8







b7

8

b3

5





seventh chord

8

1



b3



b7

6



tensions









b7

T9

T11

6



dorian bebop scale

 

  





7

major (blues) pentatonic scale

  1

8





        

7







mixolydian bebop scale

 

6

1



        

4





tensions

major bebop scale

 

3

3

seventh chord

Cmaj7

 2

  b3

 3

4



  b2



 

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

  1

 b3

 4

  #4

5

 -9-

the major scale: melodic traits  harmonic series tonic 5 3 T 3 5 b7 T 2 3 #4 5 6 b7 7 T                                 sequence of sounds (harmonics) generated over a fundamental frequency. 4 doesn´t appear, 7 does, but far in the series.  C

 a summary of the series suggests a lydian b7 bebop scale (lydian b7 with 7 as passing tone)         



 stability - instability stability in relation to tonic

stable

T

 

5

3



6



stable tones

2



unstable



4



unstable tones

7



 major pentatonic scale  the major pentatonic scale doesn´t include 4 and 7, the most unstable tones, this facilitates the production of consonant melodies. 

T



2

3

5









6

 melodic tendencies  natural tendency of resolution of unstable tones of the major scale.        2

T

4

3

6

5





7

T

 modal harmony  in a modal context, the tones that give the flavor of the mode, no matter their degree of stability, are called characteristic and secondary characteristic notes.

c ionian (modal context)

           tritone characteristic note

secondary characteristic note

c ionian (no 4) (tonal context)

          

Cmaj7

 

color notes of the mode: order of importance

note  characteristic   

tritone

1

Cmaj7

   1

4

secondary characteristic note

7

3

    7



3

 2

 6

2

 6







5





5

-10-

major scales scale

seventh chord

        w w h w w w h

Cmaj7

F

         

Fmaj7

Bb

Bbmaj7

C

tensions











5

7

T9























 







 







  

 







 







 



 

 



 

              



 



 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

 



1

3

 



            

Ebmaj7

              Eb

 

Abmaj7                  

Ab

Dbmaj7

                 Db

Gmaj7

           G



Dmaj7

          D





Amaj7                 

A

Emaj7

             E

B



Bmaj7

F#maj7

                  F#

avoid note

4



T13



           -11-

major scales scale

seventh chord

C

         w w h w w w h 1

         

2

3

4

5

6

7

Cmaj7

8

  1

 3

tensions







5

7

T9





avoid note

4



T13

F

Bb

Eb

Ab

Db

G

D

A E

B

F#



-12-

major scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

         etc...............

a)

2

etc...............

b)

thirds

        a)

3

b)

arpeggios

          1 3 5 8 4

connected chords

 

  

5

chord + scale



a)

a)





chromatics

6

c)







chords

d)

         1 3 5 7



   

    b)                      b)

                                   c c c c c a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio

7



two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

   c

8

b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

c

     c c

      



      

                                        c c c 9



one half step below each note of the scale + triad

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

                                 c c c c

                            c c c c c c 10

major bebop scale with three passing tones

 -13-

major scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

Etc...............

  

a)

2

thirds a)

b)

  3

c)

arpeggios

chords

a)

b)

4 a)

  1 3

connected chords

5

chord + scale

 



 b)





chromatics a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio



 

c

7

5 7



a)

 



b)

 

6

d)



    1 3 5 8

c







 

c

b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

c

c

 

 





two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio



 

8







one half step below each note of the scale + triad

  9

etc...............

b)

 

















two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

 c

c

c

 

c





 bebop scale with three passing tones   



10

c

c

 c

 c

 c





c

-14-

major scale: how to study the melodic patterns 1

c major scale: added melodic patterns

 

scale

     



+ thirds

   + connected chords

                     + arpeggios

+ chords

+ one half step below each note of the arpeggio

+ two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

                    + two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord + bebop scale

         

2

             

added melodic patterns + syncopated rhythmic patterns + articulations

                  syncopated rhythmic patterns + articulations:                 scale

+ chromatics

+ thirds

+ connected chords

                                   

+ bebop scale

3                                                                  3

-15-

the modes of the major scale in c scale

seventh chord

C ionian

         1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Cmaj7

  1

 3

C-7

C dorian

                1

2

b3

6 b7

4 5

8

C phrygian



1

b3

C-7

                 b2 b3

5 b6

b7

tensions











5

7

T9

4

T13

 







5

b7

T9

T11

6

 



 

b7

b2

T11

b6





 



5

7

T9

T#11

T13







T9

4

T13

 



 

5

b7

T9

T11

                    



1

4

8

C lydian

         1

2

3

#4 5

6

7

8

1

  1

           2

3

4

5

6 b7

8

 3

1

 3

C-7

C aeolian

               1

2 b3

4

5

b6

b7

8

b2 b3

1

b3

  5

b7

C-7b5

C locrian

1

5

Cmaj7

C7

C mixolydian

1

b3

4

b5 b6 b7

8

1

b3

b5

b7

b2











b6

  T11





Tb13 -16-

the modes of the major scale in c scale

seventh chord

tensions

C ionian

 C dorian

 C phrygian





C lydian

C mixolydian

 



C aeolian

C locrian

-17-

avoid notes in the modes of the major scale  avoid note: note one half step or tritone above chord tone (1-3-5) scale C major

chord + avoid note

half step

        

formula: 1

2

3

4

5

disonance

6

7

8

+4

D dorian

         

1

2

b3

4

5

6

b7

8

Cmaj7

    

b9 disonance

tensions and avoid notes





avoid note

T9

4

 T13



available tensions: T9 and T13 unavailable tension: T11

D-7

    

+11







T9

T11

6



though in this case the sixth is a whole step above chord tone, the tritone between 6 and b3 generates a dominant sound. in minor tonic chords I-7 or I-6, T13 is an available tension.

E phrygian

         half step

1

b2

half step

b3

4

5

b6

b7

8

E-7

    

        

Fmaj7

        

G7

F lydian

1

2

3

G mixolidian

1

2

#4

5

6

7

8

half step

3

4

5

A aeolian

6

b7

8

         1

2

half step

b3

4

b6

5

B locrian



b7

        b2

b3

4

b5

b6 b7

b9

   

   

b9

A-7

    

b9

8

half step

1

b9

8

B-7b5

    

b9







b2

T11

b6







T9

T#11

T13







T9

4

T13







T9

T11

b6







b2

T11

Tb13

     -18-

avoid notes in the modes of the major scale scale C major

Cmaj7

D dorian

D-7

   

E phrygian

  F lydian

 

G mixolydian

  A aeolian

  B locrian



chord + avoid note



   

   

tensions and avoid notes





E-7

   



Fmaj7

   



G7

   



A-7

   



B-7b5

   

 -19-

basic syncopated rhythmic patterns  fundamentals: down beat on beat on beat        44     

up beat off beat off beat                

daht

daht

1 a   44      daht

swing:

3

 44      2 a  44      du daht 3     44     

3 a  44      

     daht

3

    

        dah

3

       b

   

      du dah

 3    



dah

3

    



   



 3    



    



     







b

    

       du du du dah b

     

       

du duht daht

du

     

du dah

3       

du du du daht

4 a   44     

syncopation

b

du daht

swing:

5 a  44  

    

du duht dah b

  



daht

  

triplets

6 a 3  4       4 du du daht

   du

   dah

  

b

     3

du du daht

3      

du du dah

    



3

du du dah -20-

syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations 1 1+2       44             

      

        

      

        

syncopation

     44             

2 1+2+3  44                                              44                                 3 1+2+3+4               44                              44                           4 1+2+3+4+5                 44                                        44                           5 1+2+3+4+5+6      3              4            4     3

3

             3                 4 4

3

3

-21-

syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations with the major scale 1

                    1+2

                 

2

1+2+3

                                      

3

                

                  

                       

                        

1+2+3+4

                                                                              

4

1+2+3+4+5

5

1+2+3+4+5+6

                      

                                                      

                                   

  

3  3   3             3 3    3                

-22-

major and minor (blues) pentatonic scales major (blues) pentatonic scale minor (blues) pentatonic scale 1

C









     









  

     



 



  

       

 



     

 

 

F major (blues) pentatonic scale

  





   

 

  







        D¨

   



  

  E

   

 



5

6

8



 

         B



A



  







   



 



  



     



D



G



blue note

D minor (blues) pentatonic scale

  G

C

F

   B¨

   

   

                G©                  C©           F©                B          E              E¨

  

A

4

b7



    2  b3  3    

#4  5      

8

blue note

  1

b3

-23-

major and minor (blues) pentatonic scales major (blues) pentatonic scale minor (blues) pentatonic scale C



  1

blue note

    2  b3  3



F major (blues) pentatonic scale













   

 









5

6

8

b7



8





D minor (blues) pentatonic scale











C



 B¨



  G¨

 

   





 B

 G©

  E

 C©



 



 

#4 5 blue note       4

F



D



A



 



b3

G

 

A

1

     



 

 B



  G

   

E







  -24-

pentatonic scales: how to study

1/3

 c major and minor (blues) pentatonic scales 1

major pentatonic scale in the register of the instrument

2

major pentatonic scale with syncopated rhythmic patterns and articulations

3

minor pentatonic scale in the register of the instrument

4

minor pentatonic scale with syncopated rhythmic patterns and articulations

                          

        

        

  

     

 

                       

 5



        



           

   



major pentatonic + minor pentatonic scale in the register of the instrument major

+ minor

+ major

+ minor

                           6

major pentatonic + minor pentatonic scale with syncopated rhytmic patterns and articulations

                                     major

+ minor

+ major

+ minor

+ major

-25-

pentatonic scales: how to study - 2/3

7

major pentatonic scale in groups of four with articulations

8

major pentatonic scale in groups of four with articulations and forward motion

                                                                9

major pentatonic scale in groups of four with syncopated rhythmic patterns and articulations

     10

       

       

           

minor pentatonic scale in groups of four with articulations

                                 11

minor pentatonic scale in groups of four with articulations and forward motion

                                12

minor pentatonic scale in groups of four with syncopated rhythmic patterns and articulations

      13

  

 



         

major pentatonic scale in thirds

           

     

minor pentatonic scale in thirds



          -26-

pentatonic scales: how to study - 3/3

14

major and minor blues pentatonic scales major blues

+ minor blues

+ major blues

+ minor blues

                                    blue note blue note blue note blue note 15

major pentatonic scale with chromatics

                                c

16

c

c

c

c

c

minor pentatonic scale with chromatics

                               c

17

c

c

c

c

c

example of combinations of major and minor (blues) pentatonic scales with syncopated rhythmic patterns and articulations

                            3 Cmaj7 (C7)

major pentatonic

+ minor blues pentatonic

+ minor pentatonic in groups of four

           

+ major pentatonic in groups of four

+ major pentatonic in thirds + minor pentatonic in thirds

       

 

         

 

                                + major blues pentatonic

+ minor pentatonic with chromatics

          

+ major pentatonic with chromatics

+ minor pentatonic in groups of four

+ minor blues pentatonic

                    -27-

major pentatonic scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

etc............... b)               etc...............

a)

play ascending and descending in the register of the instrument

2

thirds



a)

3



b)      

c)

 

d)    



groups of four

b)         

a)

4

 5

connected groups of four a)

  

b)      

groups of four with skips



  

b)



          



        

6

 7

a)

c)

d)

 

  

chromatics one or two half steps below each note of the scale

                        c  c  one half step below each note of the scale + triad

                           c 8



 

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + scale

                                 c c c c -28-

minor pentatonic scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

etc............... etc............... b)                             a)

2

thirds

b) c) d)                                  

a)

3

groups of four

b)                                  

a)

4

connected groups of four

b)                                   a)

5

  6

 7

groups of four with skips

b)                               

a)



c)

    





  

d)                  

chromatics one or two half steps below each note of the scale

                            c  c 





one half step below each note of the scale + triad

                                     c 8





two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + scale

                               c c c c -29-

major bebop scale: fundamentals  incorrect: no passing tone. chord tones fall on off beats. on beat

         4



2





1

correct: with chromatic passing tone chord tones fall on on beats. on beat

          6

 passing tone

b6

5





3





1

 rules for the placement of passing tones: A from 7. 5, 3 or 1: one or three passing tones

        

b6

                    





b6

b2

b3



       

B from 6, 4 or 2: no passing tone or two passing tones

                   b2

A

+





       



    

b6

B

                      b2

b6

b3





b2

-30-

major bebop scale: melodic patterns in c play ascending and descending in the register of the instrument

1

scale

 

                      





etc...............

    

2 thirds

                          a)

3

B)

major sixth chord + diminished

C6/G A¨º7 C6/A  Bº7                                  C6

Dº7

1 3 5 6

C6/E

Fº7

2 4 b6 7

4 connected major sixth chord + diminished

C6/G A¨º7 C6/A Bº7   C6   Dº7                            C6/E

Fº7

5

one half step below each note of the scale + triad

6

enclosure with diminished + major sixth chord

                                    c c c c c c c c a)

                                Bº

3

C6



      C6/A

C6

A¨º

B)

C6/E

3



3

C6/G

A¨º 3

Bº        C6/E             Dº

3

3

                            C6/A

3



C6/G

3

-31-

major bebop scales in all keys 

major bebop scales with three passing tones

C

        

             









                         





Eb





                            





                             





                              





B

             





E

             



















1 F

2

3

4

5

#5

6

           

7 1 #1

2

#2

3 b3

2

b2

1

             

Bb

                          Ab

Db

Gb



          

                      A

D

                     G

                                        

-32-

major bebop scales in all keys  

major bebop scales with three passing tones

C

1

          

2

3

4

5

#5

6

7

1 #1 2 #2 3 b3

2

b2

1

F Bb

Eb

Ab

Db

F#

B

E

A

D

G

-33-

mixolydian scales scale

seventh chord

C7

          ww h w w h w  C

1

2

3

4

5

6

b7

8



1

3

F7             

F

Bb



Bb7

              

Eb7

                Eb

Ab7                 

Ab

Db



         D

 



D7

           

             A

A7

E

E7

              B







5

T9

4

T13

   

 

 



 



 



 



   

 



















 





 





 





 

 

B7

                Fï#

b7

  

Db7

G7

 

  

                  G

tensions

 F#7               

            -34-

mixolydian scales scale

C

seventh chord

       w w h w w h w 1



2

3

4

5

6

b7

8

C7

  1

 3

tensions

 







5

T9

4

T13

7



F

Bb



Eb



Ab



Db

     

F#

B E

A

D

G



-35-

mixolydian scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

                               etc...............

a)

2

etc...............

b)

thirds

c) d)                                  

a)

3

b)

arpeggios

          1 3 5 8 4



connected chords

a)



5

    

 





chords

             1 3 5 b7







b)                     

chord + scale

                                   a)

b)

chromatics

6

                                      c c c c c c a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio

7

 8

b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

   c

c

     c c

      



      

                                         c c 9



one half step below each note of the scale + triad

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

                                   c c c c c c c c

                              c c c c c c 10

bebop scale with three passing tones

 -36-

mixolydian scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

   2



a)

b)

 

chords



     1 3 5 b7

connected chords

a)

 b)



5

chord + scale



a)

b)

 

chromatics

6

 

a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio

 

c

7





c



 c

  c

b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

c

c

 

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

 8

d)



       1 3 5 8 4



c)

arpeggios

etc...............



b)



thirds

3



etc...............

a)

c

c

 

c

c

 









 

one half step below each note of the scale + triad

      c 9

 10





two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord



        c c c c 

bebop scale with three passing tones



 -37-

mixolydian bebop scale: fundamentals  incorrect: no passing tone. chord tones fall on off beats. on beat

         4



2





1

correct: with chromatic passing tone chord tones fall on on beats. on beat

          7

5



3







1

 passing tone  rules for the placement of passing tones: A from 7. 5, 3 or 1: one or three passing tones

                



7

                     b3

b2





7

B from 6, 4 or 2: no passing tone or two passing tones

        





                 



b2

A

+

    

7

B

                      b2

7

b3





b2

-38-

mixolydian bebop scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

                          2

etc...............

thirds

                          a)

B)

3

arpeggios

4

connected chords

5

chord + scale

6

chromatics

               1 3 5 8



chords

            1 3 5 b7







                                      

                   

                               c c c a)

one half step below each note of the arpeggio

       8

7

b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

                           c c

one half step below each note of the scale + triad

                                   c 9



two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

                                 c c c c -39-

mixolydian bebop scales in all keys 

mixolydian bebop scales with three passing tones

                       





F

                          





                           





Eb













Gb





B

                         





E





                           





                      











C

1



2

3

4

5

6

b7

7

1 #1

2 #2

3 b3

2

b2

1

Bb

                            

                              Ab

                               Db

                                 

                          A

D

                          G

-40-

syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations with the mixolydian scale 1

                      1+2

                  

2

1+2+3

3

1+2+3+4

                                

               

                  

                                               

                                                                                

4

1+2+3+4+5

5

1+2+3+4+5+6

                       

                                                        

  

3  3   3             3 3      3                                  

                

-41-

dorian scales 

scale

c

C-7

seventh chord

               w

h

w

w

w

h

w

F

1 F-7

Bb

Bb-7

1

2

b3

4

5

6

b7

8

b3

                 

 



5

T9

b7

 



   Gb-7                 B





 

  



 

   







 



 



                       E

 

E-7

        

A-7

        

D-7

A



 

D







          G







B-7

 

 

  

G-7

















 



 

                   Gb



 

Db-7

Db

6



 

Ab-7                  

 

avoid note



 

                  Ab

T11





 

Eb-7



 

                  Eb

tensions











 

    -42-

dorian scales scale

c

C-7

seventh chord

             w

1

h

2

w

b3 4

w

w

5

h

6

b7

w

8

1

b3







5

b7

T9

 T11

tensions



avoid note



6

F



Bb



Eb



Ab



Db



Gb



B



E



A



D



G



-43-

dorian scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

  2

    

etc...............

             a)

b)

 

  

etc...............

  

thirds

b) c) d)                                   

a)

3

a) arpeggios

b)

chords

                                     1 3 5 8 1 b3 5 b7 4

connected chords



a)

5

 

    

b)                            

chord + scale

                               6

a)

b)

chromatics

                                     c c c c c c a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio

7



b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

   c

c

            c c

8

one half step below each note of the scale + triad

9

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord



      

                                         c  c c c  10

                               c c c c

                           bebop scale with three passing tones

 -44-

dorian scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

 





2

thirds



a)

3

 4

etc...............

a)





b)

a) arpeggios

       1 3 5 8 connected chords

chord + scale a)

a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio

b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio



     c c

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

 c



 

c

one half step below each note of the scale + triad

 



 

c

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

 c



b)

chromatics

7

10

chords

b)

       c

9





    

8

 

d)

       1 b3 5 b7

 

6

c)

b)

a)

5

b)



c

c

c



 

bebop scale with three passing tones



 -45-

dorian bebop scale: fundamentals  incorrect: no passing tone. chord tones fall on off beats. on beat

         4



2





1

correct: with chromatic passing tone chord tones fall on on beats. on beat

          7

5



3







1

 passing tone  rules for the placement of passing tones: A from 7. 5, 3 or 1: one or three passing tones

                



7

                     7

4





b2

B from 6, 4 or 2: no passing tone or two passing tones

        





                 



b2

A

+

    

7

B

                      b2

7

4





b2

-46-

dorian bebop scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

2

thirds

                       

etc...............

play ascending and descending in the register of the instrument

                         a)

3

B)

minor sixth chord + diminished



                      

4

connected minor sixth chord + diminished

C-6

Dº7

C-6/E

Fº7

C-6/G

A¨º7



Bº7         

C-6/A

C-6/A Bº7 C-6 Dº7                                       C-6/E

Fº7

C-6/G

A¨º7

5

one half step below each note of the scale + triad

6

surrounding the minor sixth chord with diminished + minor sixth chord

                                            c c c c c c c c a)





C-6



C-6/E¨



C-6/G

                       3

      C-6/A

C-6

A¨º

B)

3

3

 

A¨º 3



Bº        C-6/E¨              Dº

3

3

                            C-6/A

3



C-6/G

3

-47-

dorian bebop scales in all keys  dorian bebop scales with three passing tones

                         





                         





                           







                           





                               















  





  





  





  





                        





C

1

2

b3

4

5

6

b7

7

1 #1

2 4

b3

4

2

b2

1

F









                                                              G¨

                      E                       

B

                     D                      

A

G

-48-

syncopated rhythmic patterns combinations with the dorian scale 1

                      1+2

                 

2

1+2+3

                                             

3

                

                   

                       

                         

1+2+3+4

                                                                                

4

1+2+3+4+5

5

1+2+3+4+5+6

                       

                                                      

  

3  3   3             3 3      3                                  

                

-49-

jazz scales: how to study i 1

added scales in c. major scale

+ major pentatonic scale

+ minor pentatonic blues scale

                                                         + major pentatonic blues scale + minor pentatonic blues scale

+ major bebop scale

2

added scales in c with different melodic patterns.

                  major scale in thirds

+ major scale with connected chords + major pentatonic scale in groups of four

                            + minor pentatonic scale in groups of three

3

+ major sixth and diminished chords

added scales in c with different melodic patterns, syncopated rhythmic patterns and articulations.

                        major scale in chords

+ major pentatonic scale

             

      

                

      

+ major bebop scale with three passing tones

+ major pentatonic scale with chromatics

              

       

+ minor pentatonic scale in thirds

        



       

       



3

3

-50-

jazz scales: how to study ii

1/2

1  melodic pattern 1: ascending and descending from each note of the c major scale:

 

etc.

        a)

etc.

      B)

 syncopated rhythmic patterns + articulations: 1

2

3

4

5

                                  etc.  melodic pattern 1 + syncopated rhythmic patterns + articulations:                                  

2  melodic pattern 2: c major scale in thirds ascending and descending in the register of the instrument: etc. B) etc. a)               melodic pattern 2 + syncopated rhythmic patterns + articulations: 4 3 5 1 2 etc.                                            -51-

jazz scales: how to study II - 2/2

+

1

2

 melodic pattern 1 + syncopated rhythmic patterns + articulations:  melodic pattern 2 + syncopated rhythmic patterns + articulations:                                          scale change

3 melodic pattern 3: major pentatonic scale in groups of four + articulations:

 B)                                             

a)

                                    

melodic pattern 3 + syncopated rhythmic patterns + articulations:

added scales

1

+

2

+ 3

 melodic pattern 1 + syncopated rhythmic patterns + articulations:  melodic pattern 2 + syncopated rhythmic patterns + articulations:                                            

melodic pattern 3 + syncopated rhythmic patterns + articulations:

                                     -52-

jazz scales: a roadmap in f 1

major scale

          1

2



3

2

3

4

5

major bebop scale







6

7

 

8



         

4

3

4

5

b7

6

mixolydian bebop scale

  

5

  



8





7

 1



4

5

  

b7

6



8





F-7

 1



7

1

1



3

5

7

T9

 



 

 2



b3



tensions





4 T13 avoid note





b2

seventh chord









3

5

b7

T9

 



  b2

seventh chord







b3

5

b7

 



  b2

 









b3

3

5

6

8

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

 



4

major (blues) pentatonic scale

 

8

b3

2





b3

dorian bebop scale



F7

7

         

6





dorian scale

1

1

seventh chord

b3

mixolydian scale

2





b6

1

Fmaj7



  







4

#4

5

b7

8





4

T13

tensions





 





T9

T11

6

tensions





 

 -53-

major scale: melodic patterns in f 1

scale

 

     a)

2

etc............... etc...............  b)              

thirds

b) c) d)                        

a)

 chords                                 3

arpeggios

1

4

3

5 8

1 3

connected chords

  a)

5

  

5 7

   b)               

chord + scale

        a)



 b)



 

chromatics

6

b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio                                       a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio

c

7

c

c

c

c

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

    c

      

    

c

c

      



c

                                         8

one half step below each note of the scale + triad

c

9

c

c

                                 two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

c

c

c

c

with three passing tones majorbebopscale                          

10

c

c

c

c

c



c

-54-

jazz scales: a roadmap in Bb 1

 

major scale

        1

2

2

3

 









 



 1

b6



3

4

5

b7

6

8

  



7



3

 B¨7

5

 

7

T9

1

  

b3







4 T13 avoid note

b2



3

5





seventh chord







        

tensions









b7

T9

4

T13



b3

2

4

5

B¨-7

 

b2



8





 







5

6

8







b3

5





seventh chord



1

  

b3



b7

6



tensions









b7

T9

T11

6



dorian bebop scale

  



7



4

   b2





major (blues) pentatonic scale

 1

8



dorian scale

  

7



2

1

6

8



mixolydian bebop scale

5 

7

       

  



6

mixolydian scale

1

4

5







tensions

major bebop scale

  

3

4

seventh chord

B¨maj7

 2

   b3



3



minor (blues) pentatonic scale

 1



b3



4

   #4

5

b7



8 -55-

major scale: melodic patterns in bb 1

scale

   2





3





4

  

           

   

etc...............

 

       

b)

c)

arpeggios

         1 3 5 8 connected chords a)





 







d)

chords

         1 3 5 7



b)



   

b)

 

chord + scale a)

   



chromatics

6



b)

thirds a)

5

 

etc...............

a)





a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio                                   c   c   c  c  c

7





8

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

 c  c

     c c

      

      



                                           c  c c 9



one half step below each note of the scale + triad



10

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

                        c  c c  c   major bebop scale with three passing tones

                           c    c c c c c -56-

phrygian scales scale

C

seventh chord C-7

             h

1

w w w h w w b2 b3 4 5 b6 b7 8

1

F-7                 

F

Bb



b3



Eb-7

5

b7

b2





   





   







   





   







    







Ab-7                      

Ab

Db







                 Eb



Db-7

                  Gb-7              

Gb

B

         

E

E-7

A

A-7

        

         D

           G



B-7

              

 

D-7

 

 

G-7

 



Bb-7

                  

tensions

T11

b6

     







 

































 











 



        -57-

phrygian scales scale

seventh chord

C

C-7

               h

w

1 b2 b3

    

w

w

4

h

5

w

b6 b7

w

8

1







b3

5

b7

tensions

 b2

 

T11



b6

F

Bb

Eb

Ab

Db

Gb



B



E

 

A

D



G



-58-

lydian scales scale

seventh chord

tensions





 



5

7

T9

T#11

T13



















 









 















 

F#maj7(#11)                    





 

              





 

              





   





  





 







 



C

        w w w h w w h 1

2

3

#4

5

6

7

8

         F

Bb

         Eb                     Ab

Db

        

Cmaj7(#11)

  1

 

 3

Fmaj7(#11)





Bbmaj7(#11)

 



Ebmaj7(#11)

   

  

Abmaj7(#11)

Dbmaj7(#11)

 



F#

B

E

Bmaj7(#11)

Emaj7(#11)

Amaj7(#11)

                A

D

Dmaj7(#11)

               Gmaj7(#11)

            G



            -59-

lydian scales scale

seventh chord

C

         w w w h w w h 1



F

2

3

#4

5

6

7

8

Cmaj7(#11)

  1

 3

tensions





 

5

7

T9

T#11

 T13



Bb



Eb



Ab



Db

     

F#

B E A

D

G



-60-

lydian scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

  2

      a)



       

etc...............

    

etc...............

b)

thirds

b) c) d)                               

a)

3

a) arpeggios

                                   1 3 5 8 1 3 5 7 4

connected chords



a)

5

   



b)

chords

b)                      

chord + scale a)

   

 

                   b)

chromatics

6

                                        c c c c c c a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio

7



two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

   c

8

b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

c

     c c

      



      

                                       c c  c  c 9



one half step below each note of the scale + triad

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

                                c c c c c c c c

                             c c c c c c 10

lydian bebop scale with three passing tones

 -61-

aeolian scales scale

C

C-7

seventh chord





b3

5

b7

T9







  





  







   





1

             

2

b3

4

5

b6 b7

8

F

F-7

Bb

Bb-7

                 



Eb-7

                    Eb



Ab-7                      

Ab

Db-7

                  Db

   Gb-7                Gb

B

E

E-7

A

A-7

        

                  D



B-7

              

 

D-7

 

   

T11

    



   





  





























   





















b6



 G-7               G

 



             w h w w h w w  1

tensions



        -62-

aeolian scales scale

C

C-7

                w

1

 

h

2

w

b3

w

4

h

5

w w b6 b7 8

1

seventh chord



b3







5

b7

T9

 

tensions

T11



b6

F

Bb

Eb

 

Ab

Db



Gb



B



E

 

A

D



G



-63-

locrian scales scale

seventh chord

C

C-7(b5)

               h w w h w w w F

1 F-7(b5)

Bb

Bb-7(b5)

1

b2

b3

4

b5 b6 b7 8



b3

                                       Eb

Eb-7(b5)

Ab

Ab-7(b5)

                 

                  Db-7(b5)

               Db







b5

b7

b2



       

 

            E

E-7(b5)

A

A-7(b5)

            

D-7(b5)

             D

 

Tb13





   







    







   







   









    



























   



















 G-7(b5)                  G

T11



   

Gb-7(b5)                B-7(b5)

 



Gb

B

tensions



      -64-

locrian scales scale C

seventh chord C-7(b5)

                h

1

   

w w h w w w b2 b3 4 b5 b6 b7 8

1



b3

tensions







b5

b7

b2

 

T11



Tb13

F

Bb

Eb

Ab

Db



Gb



B



E

 

A

D



G



-65-

locrian scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

                  etc...............

a)

etc...............

b)

thirds

2

c) d)                        

a)

b)

3

a)

4

connected chords

arpeggios

                                             1 b3 b5 8 1 b3 b5 b7 b)

chords

b)                                            a)

5

chord + scale a)

       

     

  b)



chromatics

6

           

                                           c c c c c a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio

7



two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

   c

8

b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

c

                      c c



                                     one half step below each note of the scale + triad

c

9

 10



c

c

c

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

                                  c c c c            locrian bebop scale

c







 -66-

the modes of the melodic minor scale scale C melodic minor i

         

C-maj7

  











 5

7

T9

T11

T13

           











6

T7

T9

T11









b7

b2

T11

6











#5

7

T9

T#11

6













3

5

b7

T9

T#11

T13



 

T9

4

Tb13







T9

T11

Tb13









b7

Tb9

T#9 T#11

1



tensions

seventh chord

2

b3

4 5

6

7

8

2

b3

4 5

6

7

8

D dorian b2 (phrygian §6)

         1

b2 b3

4

5

6 b7

8

Eb lydian augmented

         1

2 3

#4 #5

6 7

8

F lydian dominant

         1

2

3

#4 5

6

b7

8

G mixolydian b13

1

  1

   1

F7(#11)

 

         

4

5

b6

b7

8

A locrian #2 1

2

b3

4

b5

b6 b7 8

B diminished whole tone / altered / superlocrian  

       1

b2 #2

3 #4 #5(b13 b7 8

b3

 3

1

A-7b5

3



Ebmaj7(#5)

G7b13

2

b3

D-7

         1

b3

C-6

C melodic minor ii

1

1

  1

  1

5

 5





3

5





b3

b5

B7#9

   1

3



#5

 b7

 b7

    



  Tb13 -67-

the modes of the melodic minor scale in c scale C melodic minor i

          1

2

b3

4

5

6

7

8

C-maj7

 



b3

1

C-6

C melodic minor ii

            1

2

b3

4

5

6

7

8

b3

1

C dorian b2 (phrygian §6)

C-7

            1

b2 b3

4

5

6

b7

8

C lydian augmented

1

2 3

#4 #5

6

7

8

C lydian dominant

          1

2

3

#4 5

6

b7

8

1

3

4

5

b6

b7

8

   1

1

                  

2

b3

3

 3

 3

4

b5

b6 b7

8

1



b3

C diminished whole tone / altered / C7#9 superlocrian

                1

b2

#2

3

b5 #5-b13 b7 8

1



3







5

7

T9

T11

T13











6

T7

T9

T11









5

b7

b2

T11

6





 



7

T9

6



 



5

b7

T9

T#11

T13







 

5

b7

T9

4







 

b7

T9

T11

5



#5



C-7b5

C locrian #2 1



C7(#11)

             2

b3





C7b13

C mixolydian b13

1



Cmaj7(#5)

           1

tensions

seventh chord

b5



#5

 b7

T#11

  







Tb13



Tb13

     Tb9

T#9 T#11

Tb13 -68-

melodic minor scales scale

C

         w h w w w w h 1

2

b3

4

5

6

7

8

C-maj7

   1

Eb-maj7

7

T9





 







 









 







 







  







 





 





   

Ab-maj7                   Db-maj7

                  Gb-maj7                  

Gb

B

B-maj7

           

E-maj7

            E

           A

A-maj7

          G

G-maj7







































D-maj7

           D

T13

5

b3

Ab

Db

T11



Bb-maj7

              Eb







F-maj7             

              





F

Bb

tensions

seventh chord

 



            -69-

melodic minor scales 

scale

C 1

          

2

b3

4

5

C-maj7

6

7

8

1

seventh chord

b3

5

7

tensions

T9

T11

T13

F

Bb

Eb

Ab

Db

Gb

B

E

A

D

G

-70-

melodic minor scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

                               etc...............

a)

etc...............

b)

thirds

2

b) c) d)                                  

a)

3



a)

arpeggios

       1 b3 5 8



4

connected chords



a)

5



     

 



          



chromatics

6

b)

chords

          1 b3 5 7



   b)                   

chord + scale a)

 





 b)

             

                                          c c c c c a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio

7



b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

   c

c

               c c



      

8

one half step below each note of the scale + triad

9

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

                                          c c c c 

                                 c c c c

                            c c c c c c 10

melodic minor bebop scale with three passing tones

 -71-

lydian augmented scales scale

seventh chord



 



7

T9

T#11

T13

















































 







 







 





   





  





 





 

Cmaj7(#5#11)

C

           w w w w h w h  1

2

3

#4

#5

6

7

8

1

 3

Fmaj7(#5#11)            

F

Bb

Bbmaj7(#5#11)

                        Eb

         Ab

Db

                  

Ebmaj7(#5#11)

 

  

Abmaj7(#5#11)



Dbmaj7(#5#11)

 



    

F#

F#maj7(#5#11)

B

Bmaj7(#5#11)

          

   

Emaj7(#5#11)

               E

Amaj7(#5#11)

                 A

D

Dmaj7(#5#11)

           Gmaj7(#5#11)

            G

tensions





#5



 

            -72-

lydian augmented scales scale

seventh chord Cmaj7(#5#11)

C

              w



F

1

w

2

w

3

#4

w

#5

h

w

6

h

7

8

1

 3



#5

tensions



 



7

T9

T13

T#11



Bb



Eb



Ab



Db

     

F#

B E

A

D

G



-73-

lydian dominant scales scale

seventh chord

tensions

 



b7

T9

T#11

T13

 







 







Eb7(#11)                  















 

C

C7(#11)

             w w w h w h w 1

2

3

#4

5

6

b7

8

1



3

F7(#11)              

F

Bb

Bb7(#11)

             



  5

Eb

Ab7(#11)                     

Ab

Db7(#11)

                 Db

 

     



   

              



  



             





   





  







 





 

F#7(#11)              

F#

B

B7(#11)

E

E7(#11)

A7(#11)                

A

D

D7(#11)

                      G

 

G7(#11)



 



   -74-

lydian dominant scales scale

seventh chord C7(#11)

C

            w

1



w

2

w h w h w 3 #4 5 6 b7 8

1

tensions



 

3

5

b7

 



T9

T13

T#11



F

Bb



Eb



Ab



Db



F#

     

B E

A

D

G

-75-

lydian dominant scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

                          etc...............

a)

2

etc...............

b)

thirds

c) d)                              

a)

3

b)

a) arpeggios

chords                                      1 3 5 8 1 3 5 b7

4

connected chords



a)

5



   

chord + scale

a)

  

 

b)

   b)                                           b)

chromatics

6

                                     c c c a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio

7

 8

b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

   c

c

     c c

      



      

                                          c 9



one half step below each note of the scale + triad

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

                                c c c c c c c c

                              c c c c c c 10

lydian dominant bebop scale with three passing tones

 -76-

locrian #2 scales scale

C

seventh chord C-7(b5)

               w

1

h

2

b3

w

h

4

b5

w

b6

w

b7

w

8

1



b3

                  F

F-7(b5)

Bb

Bb-7(b5)

                    Eb

Eb-7(b5)

Ab

Ab-7(b5)

                

                 Db-7(b5)

               Db



b5

        

 

             E

E-7(b5)

A

A-7(b5)

            

D-7(b5)

            D

b7

T9

T11



Tb13





  





   





   







   















   

























   



















 G-7(b5)                 G

 





Gb-7(b5)                   B-7(b5)





  

Gb

B

tensions

  

      -77-

locrian #2 scales scale

C

seventh chord C-7(b5)

               w

1

   

h

2

b3

w

h

4

b5

w

w w b6 b7 8

1



b3

tensions







 

b5

b7

T9

T11



Tb13

F

Bb

Eb

Ab

Db



Gb



B



E

 

A

D



G



-78-

locrian #2 scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

                  etc...............

a)

etc...............

b)

thirds

2

c) d)                          

a)

3

b)

a)

arpeggios

               1 b3 b5 8 4

connected chords



a)

5

 

     

chord + scale

a)

  

     

chromatics

6

  

 



b)

chords

                     1 b3

b5 b7

b)                                 

 

     

  b)



            

                                       c c c c c a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio

7



two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

   c

8

b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

c

                      c c



                                          c c c c 9

 10



one half step below each note of the scale + triad

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

          c c c c



         

          



           

locrian +2 bebop scale

c







 -79-

diminished whole tone scales scale C

(Diminished H-W

+

seventh chord Whole Tone)

C7#9 (alt)

             h w h w w w w  1

b2 #2

3 #4 #5(b13) b7 8

1

F

F7#9

Bb

Bb7#9

Eb

Eb7#9

               

                                

   3

  

 

 

 





 



















   

 





   







 







 

























  A7#9              A

E

E7#9

B

B7#9

             

            

F#7#9                

F#

T#11 Tb13

 

Db7#9

D7#9

T#9

 

              G7#9 G                                

Tb9

  

Ab7#9                  

D

b7

     

   

Ab

Db

#5

tensions

  



-80-

diminished whole tone scales scale



C h 1

          

(Diminished H-W

seventh chord +

Whole Tone)

w h w w w w b2 #2 3 #4 #5(b13) b7 8

tensions

C7#9 (alt)

1

3

#5

b7

Tb9

T#9

T#11 Tb13

F

Bb

Eb

Ab

Db

G

D

A

E

B

F#

-81-

diminished whole tone scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

                 etc...............

a)

2

etc...............

b)

thirds

b) c) d)                     

a)

3

arpeggios

                                    1 3 #5 8 1 3 #5 b7 4

a)

b)

chords

connected chords

    b)                    a)

b)                  5

arpeggio + scale a)

6

chromatics

b)                                        c c c c c c a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio

7



two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

   c

8

two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

c

     c c

              



                                 c c c 9

 10

one half step below each note of the scale + triad

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

                                 c c c c c c c c diminished whole tone bebop scale

          c







 -82-

symmetric scales 1 half step/whole step diminished scales scale



C

(Eb

Gb

C7b9

A)

          1

h

w h w h w b2 #2 3 #4 5 6

  

h b7

Db

(E

G

Bb)

D

(F

Ab

B)

          

seventh chord

    



b7

Tb9

T#9

T#11

T13







 





 







 



 



1

tensions

3

5

Db7b9

      D7b9

             



2 whole step/half step diminished scales



C

(Eb

Gb

A)

Cº7

                    1

w

2

h

b3

w

4

h

b5

w h w #5 6 7

b3

1

Db

(E

G

Bb)

Dbº7

D

(F

Ab

B)

Dº7

                       

b5

bb7

 

    



T9

T11

   

Tb13

T7





  

3 whole tone scales C

(D

E

F# G#

Bb)

          1

w

2

Db (Eb

w

3

F

w

#4

G

w

#5

A

w

b7

Bb)

w

8

       

C+7

  1

Db+7

   3

   

#5



b7



   T9

T#11







Tb13(#5)



 -83-

symmetric scales 1 half step/whole step diminished scales C

  1

scale Gb

(Eb s

seventh chord C7b9

A)

  

t s t s t s b2 #2 3 #4 5 6 b7

Db

(E

G

Bb)

D

(F

Ab

B)

   

tensions

1

3

b7

5

Tb9

T#9

T#11

T13

T11

Tb13

T7

Db7b9

D7b9

2 whole step/half step diminished scales



C

 1

(Eb t

2

s

b3

Gb

t

4

s

b5

A) t

#5

s

Cº7 t

6

Db

(E

G

Bb)

Dbº7

D

(F

Ab

B)

Dº7

   

b3

1

7

b5

bb7

T9

3 whole tone scales



C

 1

(D t

2

Db (Eb

 

E t

3

F

F# G# t

#4

G

t

#5

A

C+7

Bb) t

b7

Bb)

t

8

1

Db+7

 3

#5

b7

T9

T#11

Tb13(#5)

 -84-

whole step-half step diminished scales scale C

            w

1

h

2

w

b3

h

4

b5

w h w b6 §6 7

Db

             D

Cº7

  1

  

           

E¨º7

Eº7



F

Fº7

            G¨

           G

                      A¨

         A

             B¨

B

         

 

    

E

        

b3

Dº7

  





Dbº7

      

   

tensions

seventh chord



    G¨º7

  

Gº7

 

 

A¨º7

  



Aº7

 



B¨º7

     Bº7

  



 b5

          





T11

Tb13

T7





















































































































bb7

T9

-85-

whole step-half step diminished scales scale C

seventh chord Cº7

            w

1

    

h

2

w h w h w b3 4 b5 b6 §6 7

1



b3



b5

 bb7

tensions



 

T9

T11

Tb13

 T7

Db

D E¨ E F G¨

 G

    



A

B¨ B

-86-

whole step-half step diminished scale: melodic patterns 1

  2

scale

etc...............

etc...............

                     a)

b)

thirds a)

b)

c)

d)

                                           3

 4

a)

arpeggios

b)

chords

                                         connected chords

b)                               a)

5

chord + scale

b)                                a)

chromatics

6

 b) two half steps below each note of the chord                                            c c c c c c a) one half step below each note of the chord

7

                                   c c c c two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the chord

8 enclosures with diminished + chord

  Cº7/Gb



Cº7

3

    A¨º 3



Cº7/Eb

Fº 3

                         

          

3

     

Cº7/A

 -87-

half step-whole step diminished scales 

seventh chord

scale

C

          h

1

w

b2 b3

h

w

3

#4

h

w

5

h

6

C7b9

   1

b7

Db

          

 3

5

      D7b9

Eb

Eb7b9

E

E7b9

                       

    



b7

Tb9

T#9

T13











 

Db7b9

D

tensions



  

          



F7b9                

 

F





                               G

G¨7b9

G7b9 

 







   A¨7b9                 A    A7b9               A¨



B¨7b9

B

B7b9

              



 

               









  

   

 

 

   

T#11







 

    







 



   

   







  -88-

half step-whole step diminished scales seventh chord

scale

C

           h

1

          

w

b2 b3

h

w

3

h

#4

w

5

h

6

b7

C7b9

   1



3

  5

b7

tensions

     Tb9

T#9

T#11

 T13

Db

D Eb

E

F



G



A



B

-89-

half step-whole step diminished scale: melodic patterns 1

scale

etc...............

                    b)

a)

2

thirds



a)

b)

c)

d)

               

3

arpeggios

a)

chords

                                4

b)

connected chords

b)                       a)

5

chord + scale

b)                       a)

chromatics

6

                                              c c c c c c b) two half steps below each note of the chord

a) one half step below each note of the chord

7

                                            two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the chord + chord

c

c

c

c

8 enclosures with diminished + chord

  Cº7/Gb

B¨º

Cº7

       Gº

D¨º

Cº7/Eb



                   

3

           3

3

     

Cº7/A

3

 -90-

whole tone scales scale

C

seventh chord

          w w w w w w 1

2

3

#4

#5

b7

8

          F



Bb

         Eb

       

C7(#5)

  1

Eb7(#5)

 

       

Db7(#5)

          Gb

B

                 E

        

Ab7(#5)

  

Gb7(#5)

  

D7(#5)

                   G





















































  







 







   



 



  

D

   

G7(#5)

 

 



 

   





Tb13(#5)



E7(#5)

 

T#11



  

A7(#5) 

T9



B7(#5)

A

b7



Bb7(#5)

 



   

  

   

Db

#5

F7(#5)

         Ab

3



tensions

  

           -91-

whole tone scales scale

C

         w w w w w w 1

          

2

3

#4

#5

b7

8

C7(#5)

seventh chord

   1

3

 #5

tensions

 b7

    T9

T#11



Tb13 (#5)

F Bb

Eb Ab

Db

Gb

B E

A

D

G

-92-

whole tone scale: melodic patterns 1

scale

 

etc...............

etc...............

                        a)

2

b)

thirds

b) c) d)                                

a)

3

 4

a) arpeggios

triads

                                 b)

connected chords

  b)                                 a)

5

arpeggio + scale

                         a)

b)

chromatics

6

                                         c c c c c c a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio

7



b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

   c

c

     c c

                 

8

one half step below each note of the scale + triad

9

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord



                                    c c c c  10



                                    c c c c c c c c one half step on beat below each note of the scale

                              c  c  c c c c -93-

chromatic scale: melodic patterns 1

 

scale

               a)

                b)

2

             

etc...............

play ascending and descending in the register of the instrument

                

etc...............

thirds

                           a)

                              b)

                           c)

                         d)

3

groups of four

                    a)

b)

                     

4

triplets



a)

3

3

                           3

b)

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3                                  3

3

3

3

3

-94-

harmonic minor scales scale

seventh chord

C

          w  h w w h w+h w 1

2

b3

4

5

b6

7

8

C-maj7

   1



b3

F-maj7              

F

Bb

Eb-maj7

                Eb

 

  Ab-maj7                  Ab

Db

Db-maj7

                  

Gb-maj7                

Gb

B

E-maj7



            A-maj7 A             E

D-maj7

           D

           G

G-maj7

  

 

T11





5

7

T9





  





  





   





    





 

















 







 







 







 





B-maj7

           

 



Bb-maj7

              

tensions







b6

 

           -95-

harmonic minor scales scale



C

1

          

seventh chord

tensions

C-maj7

2

b3

4

5

b6

7

8

1

b3

5

7

T9

T11

b6

F

Bb

Eb

Ab

Db

Gb

B

E

A

D

G

-96-

harmonic minor scale: melodic patterns in c 1

scale

  2

etc...............

             a)

            

etc...............

b)

thirds

c) d)                                       

a)

3



b)

a)

arpeggios

        1 b3 5 8

4

connected chords



a)

5

 

   



 

  

 

         

    

chromatics

6



     

chord + scale

a)

 

 

b)

chords

             1 b3 5 7

     

b) 

               

 

             

b)

                                     c c c c c a) one half step below each note of the arpeggio

7



b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio

   c

c

            c c



      

8

one half step below each note of the scale + triad

9

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

                                        c c c c 

                                c c c c

                            c c c c c c 10

harmonic minor bebop scale with three passing tones

 -97-

scales study with melodic pattern Same melodic pattern applied to different scales

1

 

c major scale

 

thirds



a)

etc...............

   

etc...............

etc...............

etc...............

      

b)

c)

d)

2 c mixolydian scale a) b) c) d)                               3 c dorian scale a) b) c) d)                              4 c major pentatonic a) b) c) d)                        5 c minor pentatonic scale a) b) c) d)                                    6 c major bebop scale 

       

              

7 c mixolydian bebop scale                          8 c dorian bebop scale         



                   -98-

scales study with syncopated rhythmic pattern             

same rhythmic pattern and articulations applied to different scales

1

 

c major scale

       

  

     

     

      

2 c mixolydian scale         

  

     

             

3 c dorian scale         

        

             

4 c major pentatonic scale        

     

     

    

      

     

      

      

     

      

7 c half step - whole step diminished scale                       

      

5 c melodic minor scale           6 c whole tone scale         

     

8 c diminished whole tone scale                 

          

-99-

scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns i 1

+

2 c major scale

 

    

        b syncopation

c major pentatonic scale

          syncopation

b

1

+

      a

3

                a

      

c dorian bebop scale a

                     syncopation          b

       

                                               

                                                 

c minor blues pentatonic scale a

      

                           

                                          b

syncopation

-100-

scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns ii 1

+

4 c melodic minor scale

 

     

                             a

                                           syncopation

b

1

+

5         

              

c major blues pentatonic scale a



        

     

2

+

       

syncopation

b

3

c lydian scale



         b

+

         a

       syncopation

 

2

                

4

c aeolian scale

          







        

  

  

                    b

syncopation

         



a

  



   

 

      

   -101-

2

scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns iii

5

+

                        a

c phrygian scale

           syncopation

               

b

 

2

+

6

c mixolydian b9 b13 scale a

         



      

                   3

3

  

3         

syncopation

b

3 3    3                                      3

3 

+

4

c diminished whole tone scale a

     

 

         

           b

3

+

syncopation

5

c locrian scale

          b

     

syncopation

 



            

        a





              



      



             

 -102-

scales study with combinations of syncopated rhythmic patterns iv 3

+

6 c harmonic minor scale

 

       

4

 +

5



6

syncopation

c minor pentatonic scale a

                b



6 

+

6

c chromatic scale

 

          

         

3       

  

   

        3



3 3               

    3

  

a

3

3

syncopation

3

  



3



         



 

syncopation

  3   

      b



       

       

 +

          3

c whole tone scale a

b

3           



syncopation

       

4

3

3        

b



           a





        3

3

 -103-

jazz language: phrasing 

An effective way of organizing the melodic phrasing and generate forward motion is to start playing on the weak bars and finish on the strong bars. This way the phrasing accompanies the instability of the dominant chords on weak bars and the stability of the tonic chords on strong bars.

1

melodic activity

    

weak bar

strong bar







































weak bar

strong bar



















melodic activity

 

   



tension



 

2



release

weak bar

 example:





tension

strong bar

weak bar

strong bar

     







    





   

release



Using the same concept we can start playing on the weak part of the bar and finish on the strong part of the next bar.

melodic activity

 

weak bar

strong bar





 tension







weak bar

strong bar



















release

 example: melodic activity

 

                         tension

release

-104-

scales study with forward motion          rhytmic displacement of the pattern

1

 

c major scale

       



          



two notes before down beat

                          

2 c major pentatonic scale        

three notes before on beat



             

two notes before on beat

one note before on beat

                              

3 c major bebop scale 

       

4 c whole tone scale        

four notes before down beat





             





                one note before on beat

                                        -105-

jazz language: articulations 

1

in music, articulation means to give a different intention in duration and intensity to each note and how to relate it to the next note or group of notes. over the same note we talk about accent and volume, and over a group of notes, of interruption or continuity among them.

types of articulations tenuto

staccato

vertical accent

vertical accent with staccato

legato tongue hold full value

light accent hold half value

heavy accent

heavy accent short as possible

  







du

       du

du

du



 

 

hold less than full value











duht

daht

dot



   

       

       

du

duht duht duht duht

daht daht daht daht

dot

dot

dot

dot

horizontal accent

ghost note

breath articulation legato

portato

heavy accent hold note full value

attack with half tongue or less definition of pitch

no tongue, diaphragm push

legato-staccato combination emphasizing each note

     dah

2 

     dud-n du duh

huh

huh

       

du du du du

du

legato and staccato combinations and their rhythmic perception 1

 



  5

    

 

  

2

  

rhythmic perception:



     

connected notes

 

6





             

3

                    



4

7



     

 



8



    

 

            -106-

scales study with articulations     

same articulation applied to different scales

1

 

c major

       

2 c mixolydian

              

       

               

3 c dorian         

                



4 c major pentatonic scale                        5 c melodic minor scale          6 c whole tone scale         

                       

         

7 diminished half step whole step scale                          8 c diminished whole tone scale                              

-107-

scales study with chromatics c c

     

chromatics resolving to different notes of the scale

1

c major scale

         





one semitone below each note of the scale



             c c c

                             c

c

2 c major pentatonic scale        

c

c

one semitone below first note of the group of three

                



c

c

one semitone below each note of the scale

 

c

two semitones above the tonic of the scale

                               c

c

c

3 c major bebop scale 

c

c

       

4 c whole tone scale        

c

c

c

c

two semitones below and two above the tonic of the scale



              c c c c One semitone below each augmented triad







              c

c

c

                             c c c c c -108-

jazz language: embellishments 1 trill   

rapid alternation of two tones



 

2 turn  

short 



 



    long

6 connecting gliss  gliss.          









        

 5 spill  short



 long 

                  

7 plop





    







    



fast descending glissando with indefinite pitch notes before resolving



dyah(t)

8 vibrato



9 tremolo (frullato)



pitch variation

 

vibrato



volume variation

  



10 grace note (acciaccatura)     



        

    

p f p f p f p f



drui

11 overtone 12 short fall overtone of a different note starts in tune and finishes low pitch                



short glissando with indefinite pitch sounds

doit

       



      







          4 lift

3 doit

dow

13 smear starts low pitch and finishes in tune



 





 



yah(t) -109-

scales study with embellishments

        

embellishments applied to different notes of the scale

1

c major scale

         





        turn

turn

(grupetto)

                     turn

2 c minor pentatonic scale         

turn

mordent  

3 c harmonic minor scale

         

        

       





gl

lift

          





  

plop

        



        

    

iss.              

5 c lydian b7 scale 

 

connecting gliss

4 c mixolydian scale 

trill

                   

doit

 

 -110-

jazz language: clichés 1

2

major scale

             

             3

"Salt Peanuts"

   5











chromatic scale

3

      



6

 

9

blues scale

10

             





     

    





blues scale

 

 



Duke Ellington, "Take the A Train"

                    

Miles Davis, "The Theme"

3



rhythmic cliché, "el manisero"

  11

    

       

         

3

3

3

3

          8

4

major pentatonic scale

  7



major scale

minor cliché, "Cry Me A River"

        

            

12

D-7b5

D-7b5

3

"The Lick"

 



G7 alt



  C- 

3

3

G7 alt

          

     

C-



 -111-

scales study with jazz clichés       

different clichés added to the scale

1

 

c major scale

                           "Take The A Train" cliché

       

    



2 c dorian bebop scale G7 alt D-7 b5                            3 minor cliché "Cry Me A River" 3 C-                      3 3 c major pentatonic scale        





            3

jazz cliché

4 c minor blues pentatonic scale                                      



blues cliché

   





blues cliché

5 c mixolydian scale            

Miles Davis "The Theme" cliché

                 3                -112-

scales study in relation to rhythm     

playing ahead, on or behind the beat

1

c major scale

         

              

behind the beat:

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

2 c mixolydian scale 

       

on the beat:

                1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

3 c dorian scale 

        

ahead of the beat:

4 c major pentatonic scale        

ahead, on and behind the beat:

5 c melodic minor scale         

                 1

2

3

4

ahead

1

2

on

3

4

behind

               1

2

3

4

behind

1

2

3

on

4

ahead

               

behind, on and ahead of the beat: 1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

-113-

jazz language: ghost notes  1

ghost note: suggested note, with rhytmic value but undetermined pitch.

diatonic i

       

   

pp

dud-n daht x: ghost note

2 chromatic i

    

     

dud-n daht

3 diatonic ii

   

   

     

     

    

   

   

   

   

4 chromatic ii

  

    

    

   

dud-n daht

     dud-n daht

5 thirds i

    dahd-n du daht

  

  

  

6 thirds ii

             dahd-n dahd-n





7 clichés

 

3                                 3

-114-

scales study with swing

        mf mp

f

different dynamics applied to each note of the scale

ghost note



 ppp ppp                                 thirds: dahd-n du daht  ghost note: suggested note, with rhytmic value but undetermined pitch.

1

c major scale

mf ppp mp f

mf mp mp ppp

2 c mixolydian scale dahd du -n dahd du -n                                 seventh chords:  ghost note ppp

3 c dorian scale 

         thirds:

mf ppp mf ppp dahd-n dahd-n

                    

4 c major pentatonic scale mp mf mp ppp  

du dahd -n du dahd -n

groups of four:

              

5 c minor blues pentatonic scale mf ppp         

triplets:

6 c whole tone scale         chromatics:

f dahd-n daht

       3

      3

  



  



  



3             3

ppp mf mp f n- dahd-n daht

    

  

                  -115-

jazz language: pivoting  pivot is an octave change, it modifies the sound of the melodic line and eliminates the limitations of the register of the instrument.

c major scale                             1

pivot

                  

2 c major bebop scale                      pivot

  





        pivot

3 c major pentatonic blues scale                 

       

pivot

       



      

       

4 c minor pentatonic blues scale                 

      

       

pivot

         

       

       

        -116-

scales study with pivoting     

octave change from different notes

1

c major bebop scale

                           pivot



pivot

2 c major blues pentatonic scale          pivot

    









3 c minor blues pentatonic scale             pivot

     pivot

4 c locrian +2 scale pivot

              

5

c whole tone scale pivot





         

     



 -117-

jazz language: step and skip  step is a neighbour tone. skip is not playing one or more intermediate notes of the scale. 1

c major scale

                

                step - skip - step

       

    

2 c major bebop scale

           

                      

 





step - skip - step

  





3 c major pentatonic scale                         

 

step - skip - step

     

 

     



4 c minor pentatonic scale                          

 

skip - step - step

             

 -118-

scales study with skips 1

c major bebop scale

                         skip

skip

2 c minor pentatonic scale

         skip

skip

        skip



skip

3 c half step-whole step diminished scale

                    skip





skip

4 c dorian bebop scale

                  skip



skip

5 c harmonic minor scale

   skip

                 





skip

-119-

major ii-v-i: scale options in c 1

 scale options in c:

C-7 minor (blues) pentatonic scale

          

Cmaj7

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

          

          

         

         

dorian bebop scale

mixolydian bebop scale

major bebop scale

dorian scale

mixolydian scale

major scale





                    



C7

      

major (blues) pentatonic scale

major (blues) pentatonic scale

                          

    

       

    

 major ii-v-i progression in c:

2

II-7

V7

D-7

Imaj7

G7

Cmaj7

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

            



           minor (blues) pentatonic scale

          

major (blues) pentatonic scale

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

          

major (blues) pentatonic scale

          

major bebop scale                               dorian scale mixolydian scale  major scale                        



 

dorian bebop scale

mixolydian bebop scale

    

   

    

-120-

minor ii-v-i: scale options in c 1 

 scale options in c: 

 2



C7+9 /C7b9 0

C-7b5          

C-7b5

2

C-7b5

         



 





1

C-7 C-6

C7+9

     

C7+9

C7b9

 

aeolian (natural minor) scale (mode VI eb major)

        

 



dorian scale (mode ii bb major)

        

C-

C-maj7

   

   

V7/I-

II-7b5

D-7b5

G7+9 /G7b9 0





locrian #2 scale (mode VI Eb melodic minor)

D-7b5



locrian scale (mode VII Db major)

          D-7b5

D-7b5

       



C-7

C-7

   

C-6

  

 major ii-v-i progression in c:

 1



2



         2

         avoid note

       

 

    

2

1

harmonic minor scale

C-maj7

3

diminished whole tone scale (mode vii Db melodic minor)

locrian scale (mode VII Db major)

C-7b5

        

diminished half step - whole step scale



 1

C7b9

C-maj7C-6

4



locrian #2 scale (mode VI Eb melodic minor)

C-

melodic minor scale

diminished half step - whole step scale

2

         G7b9



diminished whole tone scale (mode vii Db melodic minor)

1

            G7+9

G7+9

 

G7b9

  

I4

C-maj7C-6

3

C-maj7

C-

melodic minor scale

        harmonic minor scale

         avoid note C-7

aeolian (natural minor) scale (mode VI eb major)

         

2

C-7 C-6

dorian scale (mode ii bb major)

        

1

C-

   

C-maj7

   

C-7

   

C-6

   -121-

pentatonic scales: scale options over the major ii-v-i progression 1

scale options in c:

C-7 minor (blues) pentatonic scale

           





      

2

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

          

major (blues) pentatonic scale

          

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

          

major (blues) pentatonic scale

               

major ii-v-i progressión in c: II-7

V7

Imaj7

D-7

G7

Cmaj7

          





Cmaj7

    

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

 

C7

    

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

          

major (blues) pentatonic scale

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

          

          

         

   

    

major (blues) pentatonic scale

-122-

pentatonic scales: scale options over the minor ii-v-i progression 1 scale options in c: C-7b5 

C7+9 /C7b9 0

Gb major pentatonic

           2

1

2

Gb major pentatonic

         

C-7b5 locrian (mode VII of Db major)

1

C-7b5

1

C-7 C-6

                    

 

 

C-7 minor (blues) pentatonic

dorian/eolian/melodic minor/harmonic minor

C7+9

C7+9

    

2

           

altered (mode VII of Db melodic minor)

         



C-



C7b9

   

C-

    

C-maj7

   

C-7

   

C-6

  

2 minor ii-v-i progression in c:



II-7b5

V7/I-

I-

D-7b5

G7+9 /G7b9 0

C-

          2

Ab major pentatonic

         Ab major pentatonic

2

altered (mode VII of Db melodic minor) 1

1

D-7b5

G7+9

                 



        

D-7b5 locrian (mode VII of eb major)

G7+9

 

G7b9

  

2

C-7 minor (blues) pentatonic

            

dorian/eolian/melodic minor/harmonic minor

1

C-7 C-6

        

C-

   

C-maj7

   

C-7

   

C-6

   -123-

bebop scales: scale options over the major ii-v-i progression 1

scale options in c:

C-7

C7

c dorian bebop scale

Cmaj7

c mixolydian bebop scale

c major bebop scale

                               c dorian scale

         



      

2

c mixolydian scale

       

     

c major scale

       

    

major ii-v-i progression in c:

II-7

V7

Imaj7

D-7

G7

Cmaj7

d dorian bebop scale

g mixolydian bebop scale

c major bebop scale

                                                      d dorian scale



 

    

g mixolydian scale

   

c major scale

    

-124-

bebop scales: scale options over the minor ii-v-i progression

1 

scale options in c:

 C-7b5#2

C-7b5

C7+9





4



3



2

locrian #2 bebop scale

         2



 C-7b5

         1

1

 

 2

   



aeolian bebop scale

dorian bebop scale

C-7 C-6

          



1

C-

C-maj7

   

C-7 C-6

   

  

minor ii-v-i progression in c:

D-7b5#2

V7/I-

D-7b5

G7+9





4



3



2

locrian #2 bebop scale

locrian bebop scale

               D-7b5

       

I-

D-7b5







harmonic minor bebop scale

C-7

   

         

1

melodic minor bebop scale

      



II-7b5



  

C-maj7

    

    

    

2

   C7+9

C-7b5



C7+9

C-

        

diminished whole tone bebop scale

locrian bebop scale

C-maj7 C-6

1

G7+9

diminished whole tone bebop scale

      G7+9

    

    

C-maj7 C-6

Cmelodic minor bebop scale

           C-maj7

harmonic minor bebop scale

           C-7

      

aeolian bebop scale

  



dorian bebop scale

C-7 C-6

          

1

C-

    

C-maj7

   

C-7 C-6

   

  

-125-

transformation of the major scale melodic line

1/2

1 c major scale 

       

      

2 + melodic patterns        

         thirds

chord

chromatics

3 + syncopated rhythmic patterns           

  

      

        



4 + embellishments     

      

  

 

grupetto

   

          







5 + jazz cliché     

      

 

grupetto

         

blues scale cliché

         

     

-126-

transformation of the major scale melodic line 2/2

6 + forward motion + pivot                      pivot

3

     

pivot

forward motion

         

     

7 + swing + dynamics                              swing

3 ghost notes

p

         

8

      F

major bebop scale with syncopated rhythmic patterns, articulations, pivots, embellishments, jazz clichés, forward motion, swing, dynamics and effects

swing

with mute 3

     

                     p

        

      F

-127-

100 ways to play the major scale  C major scale

 

     a)

arpeggios



    

Etc...............

 

Etc...............

b)

play ascending and descending in the register of the instrument

                         b)

a)

1

3 5

8

arpeggios II

               1 3 5 3 1 5 3 5 a)

b)

c)

d)

                 3 5 3 1 3 1 5 3 connected arpeggios

                                a)

1

b)

3 5

8

chords

                  b)

a)

1 3

5 7

connected chords a)

 



 





b)



   



 

chord + scale



a)

  





b)

-128-

100 ways to play the major scale

connected seconds

                        b)

a)

seconds with triplets a)

b)

c)

d) 3

                                          3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

connected seconds with triplets 3 3 3 3                                          a) 3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

thirds c) d)           

a)

b)

connected thirds

                               b)

a)

                  d)

c)

thirds with triplets 3

3

                    a) 3

3

3

3

b)

3

3

3

3

c) 3

3

3

d)

3

3

3

-129-

100 ways to play the major scale fourths a)

b)

c)

d)

     connected fourths

                   a)

b)

fourths with triplets



                  3 a) 3

3

3

3

b)

3

3

3

c)

3

3

3

3

fifths

d)

c)

     a)

b)

connected fifths a)





     b)









fifths with triplets

c)                                  a) 3

3

3

3

b)

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

sixths a)

 

  b)



3

       c)

connected sixths

            a)



d)

  b)



    

sixths with triplets

c)                       a)

3

3

3

3

b)

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

 -130-

100 ways to play the major scale sevenths

 b)

a)

 









connected sevenths a)

 







 







c)









b)

 





















d)

 





 













sevenths with triplets

 c)                          a) 3

 3

3

3

b)

3

3

3

3





3

3

3

3



octaves a)

 











 b)











connected octaves a)

 







 







c)









b)

 





















d)

 





 





octaves with triplets



                         a) 3



3



 3















3

b)

3

3

c)

3

3

3

3

3







3

-131-

100 ways to play the major scale  24 permutations of the 1 2 3 5 pattern 1

2

3

5

                                           

24 permutations of the 5 6 7 9 pattern 5

6

7

9

                                                      24 permutations of the 3 5 6 7 pattern 3

5

6

7

                   -132-

100 ways to play the major scale  chromatics one half step below each note of the arpeggio

                                        c c c c c c c c a)

b)

two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

                                      c c c c b)

A)

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio



                                    c c

                                    c c one half step below each note of the scale + triad

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

 

                                c c c c on beat chromatics over arpeggio I

              c



           

chromatics over arpeggio II



                                    c c c c c) d)                                       c c c c b)

A)

triplets with chromatics over arpeggio

               3

3

                           3 A)

3

b)

3

3

3

3

triplets with chromatics over scale I

c)

3

3

3

                         3 3

3

c

c

3

triplets with chromatics over scale II

3

3

3

                         c c 3 3

3

3

3

3

3

3

 

3

-133-

100 ways to play the major scale major sixth chord + diminished A¨º C6/A Bº                                   C6



C6/E



C6/G

connected major sixth chord + diminished C6/A Bº C6 dº                                 C6/E



C6/G

A¨º

enclosures with diminished + major sixth chord I Bº

C6



C6/E



                    

 

3

3

3

                  C6/G

A¨º

C6/A

3



enclosures with diminished + major sixth chord II

    

                  



  C6/G

C6/E

3

A¨º

C6/A

3



           3



3

C6

      -134-

100 ways to play the major scale  phrase building with different ways of playing the major scale Cmaj7

1

chord + scale

thirds

chromatics connected fifths chromatics arpeggio

octaves

                                    2

chromatics

connected chords

          

3

chromatics

                       

chromatics

5-6-7-9 pattern 1-2-3-5 pattern

chromatic enclosure

3                             

4

 

5

enclosure with diminished + major sixth chord I

seconds

                            3 3

connected arpeggios

3

scale

3

3

chromatics

                         

    -135-

scales memorization: f mixolydian 1 source

mixolydian: fifth mode of the major scale

        

Bb major

F mixolydian

           5 2 comparison

the mixolydian scale is the same as the major scale with b7

         

        

7

F major

b7

F mixolydian

3 formula



mixolydian scale: 1

2

3

4

5

b7

6

8

         F mixolydian

1

2

3

4

5

b7

6

8

4 tetrachords major tetrachord

        

minor tetrachord

major tetrachord

         1

2

3

4

1

b3

2

4

1

2

3

minor tetrachord

4 + 1

b3

2

4

5 whole steps and half steps

        

C mixolydian

F mixolydian

         W

6

W

s

W

W

H

W

W

W

s

W

W

scale, chord tones, available and unavailable tensions

              F mixolydian

F7 1

H



W

avoid note

 3

 5



 

b7

T9

4

T13



same as g- triad -136-

scales memorization: f mixolydian 1 source



mixolydian: fifth mode of the major scale

Bb major

F mixolydian

        

2 comparison



the mixolydian scale is the same as the major scale with b7

          F major

7

F mixolydian



3 formula



F mixolydian

mixolydian scale:



4 tetrachords major tetrachord



minor tetrachord

major tetrachord

        1

2

3

4

1

b3

2

minor tetrachord



4

5 whole steps and half steps C mixolydian

         W

6

W

s

W

W

H

W

F mixolydian



scale, chord tones, available and unavailable tensions

avoid note

          F mixolydian

 same as -137-

scales memorization: f dorian 1 source

dorian mode: second mode of the major scale F dorian

         

          Eb major

2

2 comparison

the dorian scale is the same as the major scale with b3 and b7. F dorian

          F major

3

          b3

7

b7

3 formula dorian scale:



1

b3

2

4

5

6

b7

          F dorian

8

1

b3

2

4

5

b7

6

8

4 tetrachords C minor tetrachord



        1

5

2

b3

4

1

2

b3

4

minor tetrachord

1

b3

2

minor tetrachord

4 + 1

b3

2

4

whole steps and half steps C dorian

          W

6

         

F

minor tetrachord

H

W

W

W

H

W

          F dorian

W

H

W

scale, chord tones, available and unavailable tensions F dorian F-7

             1

 b3

  5

b7

W

W

H



W

 

avoid note

T9

6

T11



same as g- triad

-138-

scales memorization: f dorian 1 source

dorian mode: second mode of the major scale

          2 2 comparison



the dorian scale is the same as the major scale with b3 and b7. F dorian

          F major

3



7

3 formula dorian scale:



1

b3

2

4

5

b7

6

F dorian

8



4 tetrachords C minor tetrachord

F minor tetrachord

minor tetrachord

         1

5

2

b3

4

1

2

b3

4

        W

6



whole steps and half steps C dorian



minor tetrachord

H

W

W

W

H

W

F dorian



scale, chord tones, available and unavailable tensions F dorian

         

F-7

 same as

-139-

dominant blues in f: scale options 

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

                     

major (blues) pentatonic scale

           

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

same as bar 1

major (blues) pentatonic scale 

       

mixolydian (bebop) scale                           mixolydian (bebop) scale

I7

F7      

IV7

chords:



walking bass  line:



same as bar 2

   

 1

        



IV#º7





           minor (blues) pentatonic scale





            dorian (bebop) scale

II-7

G-7     



 



 9



 I7



3





       mixolydian (b9) b13 scale

       

V7/II

D7b9     7

 



same as bar 1



      

mixolydian (bebop) scale          



4

major (blues) pentatonic scale

major (blues) pentatonic scale 

V7

 10



F7    









8

same as bar 10











I7



 



        

 

          







6 minor (blues) pentatonic scale



F7    

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

F7    



C7   





I7

Bº7      

5



same as bar 1

whole step - half step diminished scale

IV7

B¨7         









F7    







 





I7

2









B¨7     

same as bar 1



V7



  11

C7     





12

-140-

dominant blues in f: scale options 

 

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

 

major (blues) pentatonic scale

 

 

mixolydian (bebop) scale

  

 

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

same as bar 1

 



same as bar 1

major (blues) pentatonic scale



 

mixolydian (bebop) scale



 

chords:





 



walking bass line: 1

2

same as bar 2



3

4 minor (blues) pentatonic scale

same as bar 1



 

major (blues) pentatonic scale





whole step - half step diminished scale

 

 

mixolydian (b9) b13 scale













5

6 minor (blues) pentatonic scale

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

 

7



 

 

8

same as bar 1

same as bar 10

major (blues) pentatonic scale



 dorian (bebop) scale

  

 

 

mixolydian (bebop) scale



 







9

10

11

12

-141-

minor blues in c: scale options  scale options: 

V7#9 C7#9

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

        (no key signature)

same as bar 1

      

same as bar 1





melodic minor scale harmonic minor scale aeolian (natural minor) scale

C-

    walking bass line:    

 

1



minor (blues) pentatonic scale

        

IVF-



II-7¨5 V7b9 D-7¨5 G7¨9

IC-

       



V7#9 C7#9

   

      

same as bar 5

same as bar 1

 2





            

V7#9 A7#9

IVF-



 





 5



II-7¨5 D-7¨5

locrian (#2) scale

           



    6

susV7/V lydian dominant scale V7#9 A¨7     G7#9

      



II-7¨5 D-7¨5



 

IC-



V7¨9 A7¨9

susV7/V A¨7



 

 

9



4

diminished whole tone scale

half step - whole step diminished scale

V7#9 A7#9

     7

   

V7/IIA7b9



   8





diminished whole tone scale

same as bar 1



half step - whole step diminished scale

           

V7#9 G7#9

   



         

  

           

V7¨9 G7¨9

   

         





V7¨9 C7¨9

3

dorian (bebop) scale

   



V7¨9 half step - whole step C7¨9 diminished scale

dorian (bebop) scale

           chord options: I-

diminished whole tone scale

V7¨9 G7¨9



  10





 IC-



same as bars 9-10

 II-7¨5 D-7¨5

  

     11

 

V7¨9 G7¨9

     12

-142-

minor blues in c: scale options  scale options: 

V7#9 C7#9

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

same as bar 1

(no key signature)



same as bar 1









melodic minor scale harmonic minor scale aeolian (natural minor) scale

V7¨9 half step - whole step C7¨9 diminished scale

dorian (bebop) scale

  

IC-

    walking bass line:  

 

IVF-

1

minor (blues) pentatonic scale

 



II-7¨5 V7b9 D-7¨5 G7¨9



IC-





V7#9 C7#9



2

same as bar 5

4

V7#9 A7#9

same as bar 1



 







IVF-





5

susV7/V lydian dominant scale A¨7

 

II-7¨5 D-7¨5

  



II-7¨5 D-7¨5

 

locrian (#2) scale

IC-

6

V7#9 G7#9



V7¨9 G7¨9









V7¨9 A7¨9

9

V7#9 G7#9

diminished whole tone scale

half step - whole step diminished scale

V7#9 A7#9

V7/IIA7b9

7

8

diminished whole tone scale

same as bar 1



half step - whole step diminished scale



susV7/V A¨7

V7¨9 C7¨9

3

dorian (bebop) scale



diminished whole tone scale

same as bars 9-10



 V7¨9 G7¨9

10

IC-

 II-7¨5 D-7¨5

11

V7¨9 G7¨9

12

-143-

blues in all keys -template



 







1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8



 









 



 9

10

11

12

-144-

rhythm changes in bb

 scales and chords: A     

major scale

 

aeolian scale

  

 

Imaj7 Bbmaj7

VI-7 (V7/II) G-7 [G7]

           

walking bass line:        

 

major scale



   

Imaj7 Bbmaj7

       



V7/IV Bb7





 

         dorian scale

  





mixolydian scale

       









mixolydian scale

        





dorian scale

       

II-7 D-7









 

dorian scale

        

II-7 C-7

C-7 F7

Bbmaj7



   

 

         mixolydian scale

V7/V G7















mixolydian scale

        V7/I F7

D.S. al Coda

   





F7

   

   



Fine

      

  



    

C-7

   

V7/V C7



  2.

D-7 G7







                    

 



II-7 G-7







    

        



V7/V D7





 

IV#º Eº





        



lydian scale

  

II-7 A-7





 

diminished whole stephalf step scale 1.

IV6 Eb6

B dorian scale           

 

 

V7 F7

                    



  







mixolydian scale

 



         





form: aaba

mixolydian scale

II-7 C-7

 



dorian scale







 -145-

rhythm changes in bb: b section A

       



Bbmaj7





 





1.





B

 scale options over the bridge

1

mixolydian scale up to b7 V7/V D7

              V7/V C7

             

2





fine



V7/V G7

             V7/I F7

             G7

D7

           

C7

           

            

F7

major blues pentatonic scale D7

              

C7

              

                           

4



2.



mixolydian bebop scale with three passing tones

            

3



G7

F7

minor blues pentatonic scale

               D7

C7

             

                G7

                F7

-146-

rhythm changes in bb: b section A

       



Bbmaj7





 





1.





B

 scale options over the bridge

1

mixolydian scale up to b7

 



2.

 



fine



V7/V D7

V7/I F7



2



mixolydian bebop scale with three passing tones D7

  

3 

major blues pentatonic scale D7



4 

minor blues pentatonic scale D7

 -147-

rhythm changes in all keys -template scales and chords: A    



  





     

Imaj7





 

  1.



form:

 

2.

 fine

  

B  



   



  -148-

Scales Study Organization C instruments Key Priority

C

Major (bebop)

Mixolydian Dorian (bebop) (bebop)

Major (blues) pentatonic

Minor (blues) pentatonic



F Bb D G A E Gb B

Eb Ab Db

-149-

Scales Study Organization Eb instruments Key Priority

C

Major (bebop)

Mixolydian Dorian (bebop) (bebop)

Major (blues) pentatonic

Minor (blues) pentatonic



G E D A B Gb Ab Db F Bb Eb -150-

Scales Study Organization Bb instruments Key Priority

C

Major (bebop)

Mixolydian Dorian (bebop) (bebop)

Major (blues) pentatonic

Minor (blues) pentatonic



G E D A B Gb Ab Db F Bb Eb -151-

melodic patterns in all keys 1

scale

  2



a)

b)

a)

 5



1 3

8

connected chords

5 7

b)

chord + scale a)

b)

chromatics

 

a) One half step below each note of the arpeggio



c

7



c







 

c

b) two half steps below each note of the arpeggio

c

c







 

two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the arpeggio











8

One half step below each note of the scale + triad

  9



















two half steps below and two half steps above each note of the scale + chord

 c



d)

a)

 1 3

6

10

c)

chords

5



b)

arpeggios

4



Etc...............

b)

thirds

3



Etc...............

a)

c

c

c









bebop scale with three passing tones

 -152-

notes 

-153-

notes 

















 -154-