06 Hans Van Der Elzen PDF

1 I have written this book in memory Of my Great-Grandfather, Grandfather, and my Father, I am the last one in our Fami

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I have written this book in memory Of my Great-Grandfather, Grandfather, and my Father, I am the last one in our Family who was able to design and teach shoes in many different countries. My Intention with this book is to explain our Family’s “More than 100 years” Of experience. To those, like our family, who love high quality shoes. Hans van der Elzen

Title: All about shoes and techniques Edition: Shoes and Hans 2013 April. Waalwijk, The Netherlands ISBN/EAN 978-90-820670-0-2 NUR-Code: 100 Editor: Elzen, Hans van der

Author: Elzen, Hans van der All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or other-wise, without the prior written permission from the author.

Hans van der Elzen

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About Us

When I finished this training, the school asked me to become a teacher, which I accepted.

Hans van der Elzen born in Holland My family (from my father’s side) were shoe designers and shoe manufacturers in Holland. It started with my Great-Grandfather who won several Gold medals as the best shoe designer from Holland.

My Grand Parents As teacher I wrote several books about shoes. You can find them at the Royal Library, The Hague, Netherlands Hans van der Elzen. ‘S-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands. CIP-Information, Royal Library, The Hague Author Elzen,Hans v.d. ISBN 90-71281-01-9 / 90-7128102-7 / 90-71281-03-5 SISO 686.5 UDC 685.3

My Great-Grand Parents

The experience my great-grandfather had built up has been a family secret for making high quality and comfortable shoes. Due to his experience, my family has become well known as shoemakers in Holland. I wanted to know more about the technical part of shoes and went to study orthopedic shoes.

Hans van der Elzen

As I am the last one in our family who practices “making high quality shoes” I am very honored to teach my skills to other people who “love the shoes” the same way I do.

My new book was written using the experience from my last 20 years. I have worked for severa brands in many countries: Holland, Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Canada, Macedonia, Tunisia, India, Taiwan, and China.

My Parents

(See my website:) www.shoesandhans.com and www.shoesandhans.eu

About Us

In Memory of my Great-Grand Father who died at 8 March 1914 I am the last one from our family who works in shoes and therefore I have written my newest book for those who are interested in designing, making, and loving shoes like I do. I hope that it will help in the continual development of good fitting and high quality shoe making. J.W.A.M. van der Elzen Newspaper Obituary from The Netherlands

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Zijn werken werden meermalen met goud bekroond. Hij fungeerde meermalen als juylid. Hij was in zijn tijd de beste leraar in ’t schoenvak onderwijs; gedurende 30 jaren was hij daarin onvermoeid werkzaam en door hem zijn vele beste krachten voor de schoenfabrieken gevormd, daar de meeste en beste coupeurs en meesterknechts hun opleiding van hem genoten. Hij heeft zeer veel gedaan tot verheffing der shoenindustrie. Vele zullen dankbaar zijne nagedachtenis eeren.

English text Baardwijk

+ J.v.d. Elzen +

One writes: March 8 J.L. died at age 60 years at Baardwijk, Mr. J.v.d. Elzen, He was one of the best, if not the best, and most famous shoe designer. His work was frequently rewarded with gold. He served several times as member of the jury.

For easier reading I have rewritten the text in Dutch: Baardwijk

+ J.v.d. Elzen +

He was in his time the best shoe teacher for 30 years, he worked tirelessly, and through his efforts he formed many good masters for the shoe factories, the most and best model makers, and foremen received their training from him. He has done a lot for the elevation of the shoe industry. Many will be grateful and honor his memory.

Men schrijft ons: 8 Maart J.L. overleed in de ouderdom van 60 jaren te Baardwijk de heer J.v.d. Elzen; hij was een der beste, zoo niet de beste en meest bekende coupeur schoenmaker.

Hans van der Elzen

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Length measurements

Page 5

Chapter 2: Girth measurements

Page 13

Chapter 3: Insole, last construction

Page 25

Chapter 4: Feet blue prints

Page 35

Chapter 5: Last construction

Page 39

Chapter 6: Proportions

Page 51

Chapter 7: Shoe types and construction

Page 55

Chapter 8: Paper patterns/shoe backpart heights

Page 69

Chapter 9: Fish-bone, last copy

Page 77

Chapter 10: Adhesive paper, last copy

Page 85

Chapter 11: Wet paper, last copy

Page 89

Chapter 12: Construction help lines for paper patterns

Page 93

Chapter 13: Blucher Derby low cut shoe

Page 99

Chapter 14: Balmoral low cut shoe

Page 121

Chapter 15: Women’s pump shoe

Page 135

Chapter 16: Stitch-down low cut shoe

Page 147

Chapter 17: Strobel running shoe

Page 151

Chapter 18: Standard Blucher boot with and without Water tongue

Page 157

Chapter 19: Moccasin shoe

Page 169

Chapter 20: T-Band low cut shoe

Page 175

Chapter 21: Children’s high boot

Page 177

Chapter 22: Cutting edges for uppers

Page 181

Chapter 23: Pattern grading

Page 185

Chapter 24: Shoe design into a pattern with Photoshop

Page 197

Chapter 25: Designs made with Photoshop

Page 207

Hans van der Elzen

Length Measurements

5

CHAPTER 1: LENGTH MEASUREMENTS

Hans van der Elzen

6

Length measurements

Good to know why “good fitting shoes” are so important!

3 out of 4 Americans experience serious foot problems in their lifetime. Your feet mirror your general health. The foot contains 28 bones, 33 joints, 107 ligaments and 19 muscles. 1/4 of all the bones in the human body are down in your feet. When these bones are out of alignment, so is the rest of the body. Only a small percentage of the population is born with foot problems. It´s neglect and a lack of awareness of proper care - including ill fitting shoes - that brings on problems. Women have about four times as many foot problems as men. High heels are partly to blame. Walking is the best exercise for your feet. It also contributes to your general health by improving circulation, contributing to weight control, and promoting all-around well being. Conditions such as arthritis, diabetes, nerve and circulatory disorders can show their initial symptoms in the feet - so foot ailments can be your first sign of more serious medical problems. Arthritis is the number one cause of disability in America. It limits everyday dressing, climbing stairs,

Hans van der Elzen

getting in and out of bed or walking - for about 7 million Americans. About 60-70% of people with diabetes have mild to severe forms of diabetic nerve damage, which in severe forms can lead to lower limb amputations. Approximately 56,000 people a year lose their foot or leg to diabetes. There are 250,000 sweat glands in a pair of feet. Sweat glands in the feet excrete as much as a halfpint of moisture a day. Walking barefoot can cause plantar warts. The virus enters through a cut. The two feet may be different sizes. Buy shoes for the larger one. About 5% of Americans have toenail problems in a given year. The average person takes 8,000 to 10,000 steps a day, which adds up to about 115,000 miles over a lifetime. That’s enough to go around the circumference of the earth four times.

Length measurements

Shocking Foot Facts Did you know that an estimated 80% of children in the UK are wearing the wrong shoe size, which may cause them long-term damage? In addition, more than 75% of UK adults suffer from foot problems – 70% of those can be attributed to ill-fitting shoes worn in childhood. 37% would

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exposing themselves to serious foot problems that could lead to amputation, according to research in the International Journal of Clinical Practice. Research from the Glasgow Caledonian University. YouGov survey for the Society of Chiropodists and Podiatrists (SCP).

wear uncomfortable shoes as long as they were fashionable and 17% of men admit to buying shoes the wrong size. Many are wearing the wrong sized shoes on a daily basis without even knowing it. A research study, led by Norman Espinosa, M.D., an orthopaedic surgeon at the University of Zurich Balgrist, that was presented to the American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons, found that more than 90% of both outdoor and indoor shoes/

For the mentioned reasons it is very important to explain how to make good fitting shoes, still too many people get foot problems during their life.

slippers worn by the children in their study, were too small and that the shoe sizes given by the manufacturers almost never matched with the true sizes measured by the Research Group. The British shoe sizing system was created by Edward II in 1324 and that same system is still used today to manufacture footwear in the UK. Amazingly, there’s no legal requirement for manufacturers to stick to it! More than six out of ten people with diabetes are walking around in the wrong-sized shoes,

Hans van der Elzen

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Length measurements

International Shoe Size Chart Notes •

American Women’s shoe sizes are the same as American Men’s shoe sizes plus 1 ½.



British shoe sizes plus 1 are the same as American Men’s shoe sizes



Europe uses a system that came from the French called Paris Points.



Canadian shoe sizes are equivalent (identical) to American shoe sizes for both Adult and Children’s.



Mexican shoe sizes plus 1 ½ are the same as American Men’s shoe sizes.



Japanese shoes sizes are American Men’s shoe sizes plus 18. (Some companies add 19).



Australian and New Zealand use the same sizes as the U.K. for Men’s, Boys and Girls.



Korea measure shoe sizes in Millimeters (mm.).

There are two scales used in the U.S. The standard of Footwear Industries of America, (”FIA”) scale and the common scales. The “common” scale is more widely used. The scales are about ½ sizes different. Although different kinds of shoes prefer different measurements. •

Mondo point shoe size system.

Many years of research and development have led to the metric Mondo point sizing system. It should be noted that Mondo point is an internationally standardized measure. Mondo point is used foremost by NATO and other military organizations.

Hans van der Elzen

Mondo point defines the size of a shoe from foot measurements designed to ensure that the shoe will fit. These measurements are the length of the foot and the width of the foot. If a person’s length of the foot is 260 mm and the width of the foot is 90 mm, then the shoe size most appropriate in Mondo point is 260/90. All shoes marked with 260/90 should fit this person’s foot, without having to try them on! This is why NATO uses the Mondo point system. They simply measure the recruit’s feet and then order the boots and shoes. Manufacturers of protective work footwear, for example footwear for fire-men or construction workers, have started to use Mondo point. These shoe size notes are made by many different shoe companies in the world and don’t tell us how to get good fitting shoes.

Length measurements

Unfortunately, there is not “one standard” shoe size. To know what are good fitting shoes starts with what is a shoe size and there correct measurements in length and wide A shoe size is an alphanumerical indication of the fitting size of a shoe for a person. Often it just consists of a number indicating the length because many shoemakers only provide a standard for economic reasons. There are several different shoe-size systems that are used worldwide. These systems differ in what they measure, what unit of measurement they use, and where the size 0 (or 1) is positioned. Only a few systems also take the width of the feet into account. Some regions use different shoe-size systems for different types of shoes (e.g., men's, women's, children's, sport, or safety shoes). The most common shoe sizes we are still using today. We use not only the length, but also the wide, girth, instep, and ankle measurements. We need to know these measurements for making good fitting and comfortable shoes.

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Traditional USA Woman sizes are 1 ½ size different than traditional Men’s sizes. This question has intrigued scientists and thinkers since the birth of that shoe size discrepancy. The whole thing started in 1937 when John and Sarah Banks, a couple from California went into a shoe store to buy shoes. John's feet were obviously bigger than Sarah's but they both had well proportionate body types. When they bought the shoes, Sarah, who actually was a very active feminist, noticed that the shoe size of her husband was bigger than from her and she felt it was unfair since both of them had normal feet sizes. Sarah eventually started protests and demanded a same shoe size for feet of same proportion. It worked, and that is why Woman's shoe sizes are different than Men's. I do not know if this is a true story but it is an explanation and makes the sizes of the shoes even more complex.

The length for: American sizes: 1 size is 8.46 mm. and increase with 8.46 mm/ ½ size is 4, 23 mm. English sizes: 1 size is 8.46 mm. and increase with 8.46 mm / ½ size is 4, 23 mm. France sizes: 1 size is 6.66 mm. and increase with 6.66 mm./not ½ sizes. Mondopoint sizes: 1 size is 10 mm / and increase with 10 mm/ ½ size is 5 mm. The traditional USA size system is similar to English sizes but start counting at one rather than zero, so equivalent sizes are one greater. (This is similar to the way that floors in buildings are numbered from one rather from zero (ground) in these regions).

Hans van der Elzen

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Length measurements

Below you will see a measuring strap, which is what many shoemakers still use today. One side has centimeters and the other side has English and French sizes. You can compare the centimeters with English and French sizes (See Fig.1). English “children’s” sizes start at 101.6 mm (=12 x 8,466 mm) until size 13 ½. English “adult’s” sizes starts at 211.65 mm (= 25 x 8,466 mm). English and USA shoes also come in half sizes. French shoe sizes do not come in half sizes and start at 0 mm.

(Fig.1) This comparative size chart gives you a idea from foot, shoe and last length (See Fig.2).

(Fig.2)

Hans van der Elzen

Length measurements

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Knowing the length of different sizes is not enough. We need to know where to start to measure. We must measure the length of a foot when our body rests on both of our feet. For example, we start with a foot length of 22.5 cm / 225 mm (see Fig.3). We need to add an extra 15 mm to our foot length “for walking movement” inside our shoes (see Fig. 4). We measure 225 mm plus 15 mm for a total of 240 mm. Our shoes should measure a total of 240 mm on the inside.

(Fig.3) See also the English sizes on the measure strap and compare them with France sizes.(See Fig.5) We count 240 mm less 101 mm (in English we start sizes after 101 mm) = 139 mm. 139 mm divided by 8, 46 mm = 16, 43 English sizes. When we have 16, 43 English sizes we deduct the first 13 English Children’s sizes In our example we have than 16, 43 English sizes min 13 English Children’s sizes = 3, 43 English Adult sizes. In this case your English shoe size is almost 3 ½. This means that in USA sizes, your shoe size is 4 ½ for men and for size 6 for women.

(Fig.4)

In our example the total is 240 mm, 1 France size is 6.66 mm. 240 mm divided by 6.66 mm is 36; our shoe is France size 36.

(Fig.5)

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Length measurements

Mainly we have explained the France/European (Continental) sizes. At this table find European and USA sizes for you to compare.

USA sizes are based on Inches and Continental sizes are based on millimeters or centimeters. Convert to millimeters: multiply Inches x 25, 4 Convert Inches: multiply millimeters x .03937

EU 35 36 37

In the USA size system, the foot length is shown as a number and the foot width as a letter. The letter “D” indicates medium width for each size. “C” is narrower and “E” is wider than “D”.

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In the European size system the foot length is also shown as a number and the foot width can be a number as well a letter. However more and more the European width is using also the letter. The letter “M” indicates medium width for each size. “S” is narrower and “W” is wider than “M”.

41 42

You can find many different shoe size charts on the Internet but do you know if they are correct?

47

Always measure your feet´s by yourself and use the knowledge you have learned for determent your size.

Hans van der Elzen

39 40

43 44 45 46

48 49 50

UK 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 14 15

US Men 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 15 16

US Woman 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13

Girth measurements

13

CHAPTER 2: GIRTH MEASUREMENTS

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Girth measurements

The foot grows in the length more rapidly than in the width. The length of the foot does not “automatically” give a standard foot width. medically justified. Inquiries regarding the correct measurements for outlines of last insoles can be found in a table for foot length and girth measurements.

Independent of the length, we can have small, wide, fleshy or skinny feet.

Because of these large differences in feet, we can account for the girth measurements by a table where we can find the measurements for feet. We do not have standard girth measures.

If you measure the individual foot at the girth part (ball part) you can then use this measurement with a girth table. This girth measurement becomes an amplitude figure or amplitude character.

According to several scientists who have done much research in this area, among whom is Professor Schede, the free movement of the toes is a key consideration for fighting foot complaints and disease.

With the girth measurement, we can also calculate the instep and the ankle measurement.

The muscles of the toes belong to the most important support elements which allow the foot to bend. For this reason, the basic outline of the sole must be

The width:

The instep is 10 mm larger than the girth measure whereas the ankle is 10 mm smaller than the girth measurement.

Measure the girth with the measure strap around the foot at the widest points of your feet Fig.3.

The sum of the 2 measurements, divided by two gives the feet girth.

Measure from the ball to the widest point of your feet (strap A) and then again from the widest point from your feet to your small toe (strap B).

The length from strap A = 230 mm, length from strap B = 246 mm = A + B = 476 mm / 2 = 238 mm.

(Fig.2) (Fig.1) Fig.1, show an blue print from the feet and Fig.2 and Fig.3 show how and where to measure the feet for getting the correct width measurement of the

Hans van der Elzen

(Fig.3) feet. When we measure our feet then we need to add 8 mm EXTRA. Because the shoe last at the sole surface forms an angle with the insole, see Fig.4.

Girth measurements

15

This angle with the insole needs extra space. For Woman and Men´s shoe last we add 8 mm extra. For Childern shoe last we add 6 mm extra. In our example for the girth we have mea-sure 238 mm + 8 mm extra = 246 mm. The correct girth measurement on the shoe last = 246 mm.

(Fig.4) PLEASE TAKE NOTE THAT THE GIRTH MEASUREMENTS IN THE TABLES ARE MEASURES AROUND THE FOOT, NOT THE WIDTH OF THE FOOT AS MAINLY EXPLAINED WITH WIDTH TABLES IN THE USA SIzING SYSTEM.

The Girth measure is the most important part of the last. The medial and lateral part from the lasts is 2 to 3 mm wider than the insole of the last (See Fig.5). The total last width is 5 to 6 mm wider than the insole width of the last. The last insole width is 38%.

For the last width we must take 40% of the Girth measure. It is important that the ball part of the last, inside and outside ball part, we make it not too flat.

If we do so the foot will not get enough space, because the instep will become too small.

STRONGLY RECOMMENDED; BE VERY CAREFUL WITH THE PERCENTAGE OF THE GIRTH MEASURE (BALL MEASURE) AS THIS WILL INFLUENCE THE FIT OF THE SHOE.

(Fig.5)

Hans van der Elzen

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Girth measurements

How to work and use girth measurements. Last factories have made girth measurements tables Shoe factories are using these tables and order there the last they need for shoe productions. Often the Customers demand the shoe manufacture the length and width sizes they need to buy. Depending on the Countries for which the shoes will be produced, the girth tables will be different.

Girth table from Germany in mm English sizes Letter/number

France Sizes

S/Narrow

D

E

F/Medium

G

H/Wide

3

4

5

6

7

8

11 ½

46.5

247.0

252.0

257.0

262.0

267.0

272.0

11

45.5

244.0

249.0

254.0

259.0

264.0

269.0

10 ½

45

240.0

245.0

250.0

255.0

260.0

265.0

10

44.5

237.0

242.0

247.0

252.0

257.0

262.0



44

234.0

239.0

244.0

249.0

254.0

259.0

9

43

231.0

236.0

241.0

246.0

251.0

256.0



42.5

228.0

233.0

238.0

243.0

248.0

253.0

8

42

225.0

230.0

235.0

240.0

245.0

250.0



41

221.0

226.0

231.0

236.0

241.0

246.0

7

40.5

218.0

223.0

228.0

233.0

238.0

243.0



40

215.0

220.0

225.0

230.0

235.0

240.0

6

39.5

212.0

217.0

222.0

227.0

232.0

237.0

Above you have seen the girth table in English sizes for men and woman where we explain that on these tables the number F or 6 are the medium girth measurements. On the next pages we will show the girth tables for kids and the American sizing system.

PERCENTAGE OF THE GIRTH MEASURE Research tells us that a fixed standard for the length of the girth line, (plus minus 38% of the Girth mea-surement) should be used. The percentage of the Girth measure that is a measure, stipulates the width of the insole of the last. From these standards, last factories construct their lasts and insoles for their last models. On Customer request, they can change the fixed percentage.

Hans van der Elzen

The percentage of the ball measure lies generally is below 38%, therefore we get a higher content in the girth part of the shoe. Certainly we must consider that with supplements in the shoes, increased contents will be required to keep a good fit.

Girth measurements

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Girth measurements for Boys and Girls in France Sizes Fr.Sizes

1

2

3 S/Narrow

4

5

6 M/Medium

7

8 W/Wide

35

182.5

187.5

192.5

197.5

202.5

207.5

212.5

217.5

34

178.5

183.5

188.5

193.5

198.5

203.5

208.5

213.5

33

175.0

180.0

185.0

190.0

195.0

200.0

205.0

210.0

32

171.0

176.0

181.0

186.0

191.0

196.0

201.0

206.0

31

167.5

172.5

177.5

182.5

187.5

192.5

197.5

202.5

30

163.5

168.5

173.5

178.5

183.5

188.5

193.5

198.5

29

160.0

165.0

170.0

175.0

180.0

185.0

190.0

195.0

28

156.0

161.0

166.0

171.0

176.0

181.0

186.0

191.0

27

152.0

157.0

162.0

167.0

172.0

177.0

182.0

187.0

26

148.0

153.0

158.0

163.0

168.0

173.0

178.0

183.0

25

144.0

149.0

154.0

159.0

164.0

169.0

174.0

179.0

24

140.0

145.0

150.0

155.0

160.0

165.0

170.0

175.0

23

136.5

141.5

146.5

151.5

156.5

161.5

166.5

171.5

22

132.5

137.5

142.5

147.5

152.5

157.5

162.5

167.5

21

129.0

134.0

139.0

144.0

149.0

154.0

159.0

164.0

20

125.0

130.0

135.0

140.0

145.0

150.0

155.0

160.0

19

121.0

126.0

131.0

136.0

141.0

146.0

151.0

156.0

18

117.0

122.0

127.0

132.0

137.0

142.0

147.0

152.0

Hans van der Elzen

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Girth measurements

Supplements take space; the contents of the Girth are reduced by it. When we need to add inside of the shoe a supplement (= insole inlay support) we must calculate a higher content for the Girth measure otherwise the shoe will fit too tightly. For example: total Girth measure = X, thickness of insole inlay support = 4 mm.

Here we must calculate for the total Girth contents; total Girth measure plus 4 mm + 4 mm is 8 mm extra. (See Fig.6) By a thickness of 6 mm for the insole inlay support we must calculate; total Girth measure plus 6 mm + 6 mm is 12 mm extra.

(Fig.6)

THE LENGTH OF THE GIRTH (BALL LINE) When we are designing the insole for the last construction, the length of the girth/ ball line is very important for the width and the fit of the shoe. Sometimes we think that when the last is wide enough that the shoe will fit better. This is, however, not a good rule. The ball measure on the ball contents does not give us sufficient information.

For example: we take a Girth (ball measure) from 24 cm out line

(Fig.7)

Length 11 cm, Width 1 cm The outline is 24 cm (11+1+11+1) The contents is 11 cm2

• •

In fig. 7: 11cm sole and 13 cm upper leather, In fig. 8: 6 cm sole and 18 cm upper leather.

Hans van der Elzen

(Fig.8)

Length 6 cm. Width 6 cm. The outline is 24 cm (6+6+6+6) The contents is 36 cm2

Girth measurements

From both figures it becomes clear that as less difference exists in cm between the length and width, how large the surface is, with the same outline measure. When we draw a ball line longer (=larger) from the insole of the last construction then the contents of the ball part will become smaller. As a result, the toes get less freedom to move.

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In proportional comparison we have seen at the out-line of the girth/ball section at the same time more stiff sole leather and less smooth upper leather. In proportional comparison we have seen at the outline of the girth/ball section at the same time less stiffly sole leather and more smooth upper leather.

When we draw the ball line narrower (=shorter) in the insole of the last construction, then the contents of the ball will become larger. This is how we get less pressure at the big and small toe. Therefore, particular pressure points can arise on the large and small toe. (See Fig.9 and 10).

(Fig.9)

(Fig.10)

The next table concerns USA size system for girth width. (These measurements are the width of the feet) From point 1 to point 2 USA size system for width. measurements are made in Inches. is feet length. AAA AA A B C D E EE EEE 3A

2A

A

B

C

D

E

2E

3E

From point 3 to point 4 is feet width. Medium width for: Men,s = D Woman = B Bigger width for: Men,s = EE Woman = D Extra width for: Men,s = EEEE Woman = EE

The length of each USA shoe size increase or decrease with 1/3 Inch ( 8.46 mm). The width of each USA shoe size increase or decrease with 3/16 Inch ( 4.76 mm).

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Girth measurements

These are USA sizing system Girth tables for width measurements. These measurements are shown the width of the foot and not like the European tables who are mea-surements all around the foot! US Woman Sizes

Narrow

Average

Wide

X-Wide

5

2.81

3.19

3.56

3.94

5.5

2.88

3.25

3.63

4

6

2.94

3.31

3.69

4.06

6.5

3

3.38

3.75

4.13

7

3.06

3.44

3.81

4.19

7.5

3.13

3.5

3.88

4.25

8

3.19

3.56

3.94

4.31

8.5

3.25

3.63

4

4.38

9

3.31

3.69

4.06

4.44

9.5

3.38

3.75

4.13

4.5

10

3.44

3.81

4.19

4.56

10.5

3.5

3.88

4.25

4.63

11

3.56

3.94

4.31

4.69

11.5

3.63

4

4.38

4.75

12

3.69

4.06

4.44

4.81

12.5

3.75

4.13

4.5

4.88

13

3.81

4.19

4.56

4.94

US Men´s Sizes

C/Narrow

D/Medium

E/Wide

6

3.3"

3.5"

3.7"

6.5

3.3"

3.6"

3.8"

7

3.4"

3.6"

3.8"

7.5

3.4"

3.7"

3.9"

8

3.5"

3.8"

3.9"

8.5

3.6"

3.8"

4.0"

9

3.6"

3.9"

4.1"

9.5

3.7"

3.9"

4.1"

10

3.8"

4.0"

4.2"

10.5

3.8"

4.1"

4.3"

11

3.9"

4.1"

4.3"

11.5

3.9"

4.2"

4.4"

12

4.0"

4.3"

4.4"

12.5

4.1"

4.3"

4.5"

13

4.1"

4.4"

4.6"

13.5

4.2"

4.4"

4.8"

14

4.2

4.5"

4.9"

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Girth measurements

21

These pictures explain where to find the girth points and other importand points on the shoe last. By using a measuring tape we link A and B. Point A lies approximately 3 cm above the lower back part of the last. Point B, lies in the middle of the lower front part of the last. (See Fig. 14)

Fig.16) Point B is the nose top line of the last. The number of cm. divided by 2 we put this part in 90 degrees up of from measure tape to the middle of the last. Point D is the Instep point. (See Fig. 16)

Fig.14)

Fig.15) By using a measuring tape we link A and B. The total length in cm is then visible. We calculated 1/3 part of the total length in cm. Using the measure tape we put this 1/3 part in 90 degrees up to the middle line of the last. This point we call point C.

Fig.17) Point E, is the last girth point, this girth point you will find on a new last (See Fig. 17)

Point C is the Girth point. (See Fig. 15)

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22

Girth measurements

Fig.18 shows us where we need to measure the Girt; point C – E. The instep point we measure through point D and the lowest point of the insole.

REMINDER;

C – E is Girth measure; for example width 6 by English size 7 is 233 mm. (See Continental table for Men’s and Woman’s) D is Instep measure and is 10 mm larger than the girth measure; is 243 mm. Ankle measure is 10 mm shorter than the girth measure; is 223 mm.

Fig.18)

Fig.19 The ankle point we measure on a combi last (= last used for low cut shoes and boots) or boot last as we need to use the ankle measure for boots.

Fig.19)

Point F is generally indicated by the last factory and here you f nd as well the girth length line that will be explained later in this book) (See Fig.20)

Fig.20)

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Girth measurements

23

There are many different tables for Sizes and Girth measurements. This table is from an USA Sport Shoe Company and used ONLY for Men sizes! JAPAN

Width (mm)

Girth (mm)

Girth (inch)

89.30

233.36

9 3/16 24.5

90.40

236.54

9 5/16

91.50

239.71

92.60

BRZ

ARG

Fr.sizes (mm)

EUR

UK

USA

36.5

37

253.08

38

5

6

24.5

37

38

259.74

39

5.5

6.5

9 7/16

25

38

39

266.40

40

6

7

242.89

9 9/16

25.5

38.5

39.5

269.73

40.5

6.5

7.5

93.70

246.06

9 11/16

26

39

40

273.06

41

7

8

94.80

249.24

9 13/16

26.5

40

41

279.72

42

7.5

8.5

95.90

252.41

9 15/16

27

40.5

41.5

283.05

42.5

8

9

97.00

255.59

10 1/16

27.5

41

42

286.38

43

8.5

9.5

98.10

258.59

10 3/16

28

42

43

293.04

44

9

10

99.20

261.94

10 5/16

28.5

42.5

43.5

296.37

44.5

9.5

10.5

100.30

265.11

10 7/16

29

43

44

299.70

45

10

11

101.40

268.29

10 9/16

29.5

44

45

306.36

46

10.5

11.5

102.50

271.46

10 11/16

30

44.5

45.5

309.69

46.5

11

12

103.60

274.54

10 13/16

30.5

45

46

313.02

47

11.5

12.5

104.70

277.81

10 15/16

31

46

47

319.68

48

12

13

106.90

284.16

11 3/16

32

47

48

326.34

49

13

14

*** The widths sizes between the lengths sizes used (USA) are mainly 3/16 of an Inch, is equal on 4.76 mm. In the EU the widths sizes between the lengths sizes used are 5 mm.

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24

Girth measurements

These two pictures are used by shoe technical institutes for controlling the length and girth measurements.

Picture shows the measurement device for the shoe length.

Picture show the measurement device for the total girth inside the shoe.

Many years of my own experience and checking a lot of tables from all over the world tell me that when we think logically, a shoe must fit and be comfortable for our feet no matter if they are athletic, casual, or fashion. The fact is that the length of our feet, the girth measurements, and freedom for our toes plus the wiggle room of 15 mm will give us very good fitting and comfortable shoes. How to measure for making comfortable and good fitting shoes will be explained in the next chapters.

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Last Insole Construction

25

CHAPTER 3: LAST INSOLE CONSTRUCTION

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26

Last Insole Construction

Formulas and calculations for last insole constructions. Name

Total shoe last length

Points

Description

A-B

Last length in inch

Total girth (ball) circumference Wiggle room

B-D

Feet length

A-D

Measure around the metatarsal (ball of the feet) Extra room for feet movement during walking Feet length in inch

Girth (ball) point

A-C

Degrees of the girth (ball) length line

E-F

Total length of girth (ball) line Medial part length of girth (ball) line Lateral part length of girth (ball) line

E-F

Heel width point

J

Total length of the heel width line

K-L

Axis heel line point

M

Degrees of the heel width line Big toe line Big toe point Small toe line Small toe point

K-L

Heel rounding shorten

N

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E-C C-F

E-G G F-H P

Shoe size example UK size 7

7 7 7

62% from the total shoe last length A -B Variable from 80/76 degrees depended of the population group. General we use 80 degrees. 38% from total girth (ball) circumference 1/6 part of total girth (ball) circumference Total length of girth (ball) line less 1/6 part of total girth (ball) circumference 1/6 part of the feet length

7

2/3 part from the total length of girth (bal) line plus 0.08 inch extra 60% from the E-F line (girth/ball) 90 degrees on axis heel line M-J 92 degrees on line part E-F Position point of the big toe 78 degrees on line part E-F 20% from the feet length AD Shorten 0.08 inch from line A-B

7

7

7 7

Measurement Calculations 32 x 8.46 = 270.72 mm, (count 271 mm) =10.67 inch Using the width table for medium width 9.17 inch 0.59 inch 10.67 inch less 0.59 = 10.08 inch 62% from 9.17 inch = 5.69 inch 80 degrees

38% from 9.17 inch = 3.48 inch 9.17 inch: 6 = 1.53 inch

7

3.48 inch less 1.53 inch = 1.95 inch

7

10.08 inch : 6 = 1.68 inch 3.48 inch x 2 = 6.96 : 3 = 2.32 inch + 0.08 inch = 2.40 inch 3.48 inch x 60% = 2.09 inch 90 degrees

7 7 7 7 7 7 7

92 degrees Point G 78 degrees 10.67 inch x 20% = 2.13 inch Point N

Last Insole Construction

27

(Fig.1)

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28

Last Insole Construction

Calculate the Girth point (=Ballpoint) (see Fig.2) Research of Prof.Schede, has shown that the normal Girth point (=Ballpoint) of the foot lies on 62% of the foot length (E-C). Foot length + 15 mm extra length is the normal last length.

THE REAL FOOT LENGTH IS MEASURED IF THEY ARE HALF CHARGED a. The foot has not been charged if the feet do not carry the body weight. b. The foot is half charged, as both feet carries body weight. c. The whole foot has been charged if only one foot carries the whole body weight.

Our calculations do not use the ballpoint “excess”. The “excess” is a “special extra length” to be able to make a special last type, such as Italian, French, or English. The last length in the construction of Prof. Schede. It is always the foot length plus 15 mm extra length. The extra length is necessary because the foot moves forward in the shoe while walking. The foot can be static (at standstill) and becomes dynamical (moves) during walking. With the research from Aka -64 -system it become clear that the ball point for boys, girls and little children lies on 63% of normal last length. This occurs because children’s feet are not yet full-grown.

How to set up the Girth point (= Ballpoint). Draw a length line A- B, the length of this line depends on the foot length plus 15mm extra length. Calculate 62% of the length A- B, this calculated measure we set out from point A. Herewith we know the Girth point from the last for the insole construction. We call this point C. This method we apply for: Men’s last measures in the France sizes, 38 till 48. Women last measures in the France sizes, 34 till 43. (Fig.2)

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Last Insole Construction

29

The Degrees of the Girth line (=Ball line) (see Fig.3) The degrees position of the ball line according to the method of Prof. Schede on the ball point, C is under an angle of 80 degrees on the length line A- B. In the Netherlands the angle is taken smaller than 80 degrees (76 a 77) which a result that the inside of the ball line (point E) comes a little more forwards. This has to do with the foot type of the Dutch population.

Length of Girth line E-F The length of the Girth line is calculated from the total Girth measure. For Men’s lasts, we take 37 ½ % of the total Girth measure, for Women’s lasts, we take 35 ½ % of the total Girth measure as a length for the Girth line (=ball line)

Construction of the Girth line. Men’s last, France sizes, 38 through 48 Ball line C- E is 1/6 part of the total Girth measure, E is the inside point of the ball line, C is the ballpoint. Ball line C- F is 1/6 part of the total Girth measure plus 24% of this 1/6 part, F is the point of the outside ball line, C is the ball point. Women’s last, France sizes, 34 till 43 Ball line C- E is 1/6 part of the total Girth measure, E is the inside point of the ball line, C is the ballpoint. Ball line C -F is 1/6 part of the total Girth measure plus 12% of this 1/6 part, F is the point of the outside ball line, C is the ball point.

Heel width point Heel width point is set up from point A and is 1/6 part of the line A-D Length A-D is the foot length, which we call point J.

(Fig.3)

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30

Last Insole Construction Basic construction lines of the forefoot (See Fig.4)

The basic lines of the fore foot are based exactly on the spacing of the toes, it is important that the toes have sufficient space in the shoe.

We find this point by calculating 1/3 from the ball line minus 5%. The total of millimetres, set out from the basic line A1.

Insufficient space in the shoe causes squeeze points. These produce foot complaints and must be avoided. The line part E- G, stands in 92/94 degrees on the ball line, point G, indicates the large toe. The line part F- H, stands in 78 degrees on the ball line, point P, indicates the small toe. Point P, is 20% of line part A-D and lies on line part F- H. The line G- H indicates the spread of the foot.

Axis line for the heel direction On 60% of the ball line E- F, we places the point for the axis line of the heel direction This point we call point M. Link point M with point J, by means of a line part which passes through until the basic line A, This line part is axis line for the heel direction. It also gives us the direction of shoe heel.

Heel width line In 90 degrees on line part M-J, we draw the heel width line K-L, through heel width point J. The heel width for Men’s last is 2/3 of the ball line + 2 mm, for Women last it is 2/3 of the ball line + 1mm. The line part, K- J is half part of the heel width; J- L is other half part of the heel width

Heel rounding point To be able to stipulate the heel rounding line, we calculate point N, in the extension of line part M-J. (Fig.4)

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Last Insole Construction

31

To make the lines complete, we draw a line from point E with point K. (See Fig.5) Draw the line E- K till the basic line A. Do it also in this way with the points F- L. Draw also here the line F – L, till the basic line A. Circle out a line from point J (= heel width point.) The distance J- L is equal to Y. Y, is the circle line of the inside heel rounding Make also a circle line from point N (= heel rounding point) The distance N- A, is equal to Z Z, is the circle of the outside heel rounding line

Draw between both circles the heel rounding line

(Fig.6)

Fig 6. : The correct drawn Insole of the last (Fig.5)

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32

Last Insole Construction

When you drawn the insole of a last do not drawn inside of the red marks. These points are the most important points for a good and comfortable fitting. The Yellow marks are for the feet length. Also, do not draw shorter than these points. If you need to draw a spits last insole then you may draw a longer line from the points G and P and extend this line by point B. (Fig.7)

(Fig.7)

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Last Insole Construction

33

The Illustration below shows you the different between the last length for normal shoes and the last length for sandals. The normal last length is: feet length plus 15 mm for wiggle space of your foot. When we measure France size 40 than the last length is 40 times 6.66 mm is 266.4 mm. in the last length is the 15 mm wiggle space automatic included. This is for normal closed shoes! When we need the length of a sandal in France size 40, than the last length is 40 times 6.66 is 266.4 mm less 10 mm is 256.4 mm. Why? a sandal don’t need 15 mm for wiggle space as the sandal in NOT a closed shoe, but has an open toe, here is 5 mm enough for the last length. HOWEVER IF A SANDAL HAS A CLOSED TOE, THAN YOU MUST USE A LAST AS FOR A CLOSED SHOE!

(Fig.8)

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34

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Feet blue prints

35

CHAPTER 4: FEET BLUE PRINTS

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36

Feet Blue Prints

How to make correct insole patterns for the shoe last with feet blue prints. Making the correct shoe last for persons who like to wear custom made shoes, we have to measure and making the blue print of the feet.

Besides the length we need also the width, the ancle measurements of the feet and the leg measurements incase we need to make boots.

We start with the blue print and measure the length and the width of the feet. We use for this example: feet length 260 mm. and Girth measurement 238 mm, see Fig.1. Fig.2, here you can see how to draw the insole for the feet blue print. Feet length: 260 mm + 15 mm = last length: 275 mm. Last length: 275 mm less 5 mm back off line = insole length: 270 mm (see page 31, fig.6)

(Fig.1.)

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Girth is 238 mm + extra 8 mm = total girth:246 mm With these informations (the feet length and girth width) we can start to draw our insole for the shoe last using the formulas and calculations for last insole constructions on page 26

(Fig.2.)

Feet blue prints

37

Using the formules and calculations as you find them on Chapter 3: page 26 you are able to see and conclude if: •

the girth is at the normal point



the heel pressure point is correct



the girth direction is correct (between 76 and 80 degrees)



the direction fo the heel bone is correct



the feet wider or smaller is than 40% from the total girth measure



the foot abnormality is big relative to a normal insole



the big and small toe are at the correct point



the proportions from the girth to the longitudinal axis relative to the foot is correct



See Fig. 3, 4 and 5

(Fig.3.)

(Fig.4.)

(Fig.5.)

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38

Hans van der Elzen

Last Construction 39

CHAPTER 5: LAST CONSTRUCTION

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40

Last Construction

Formulas and calculations for last section construction Names

Points

Descriptions

Length measure

(A-B)

Last length in mm

Width figure or number

Width figure indicate Girth measure

Total Girth measure

Last length + width number = cm

Extra length

(B-D)

2 15 mm for Women and Men’s lasts

Foot sole length

(A-D)

Last length less extra length

Girth points (=Ball point)

(P-C1)

Golden cut

Instep point

(N)

½ foot length

Girth point (insole)

(C)

38% from last length Women’s and Men’s

Length of ball line

(C-C )

37% from last length Children’s 1/5 part of total Girth measurement

(C-C1)

90 degrees on line part C-A1

Toe height

(B-B1)

Variable

Heel height

(A-A1)

Variable

Degrees heel bow line

(A -G)

Variable

Toe thickness

D -D )

Variable

Heel width point

(J)

1/6 part of foot length

Heel length point

(K)

¼ part of foot length

Help bow point

(E)

½ last length A-B

Degrees of help bow point

(A -E)

Variable

Heel line length

(A -F

63% from total Girth measure for Women’s and Men’s , 62% for Children’s

Degrees for Heel line

(A1-F)

Variable

Heel bow rounding

(A -H)

Variable

Heel bow rounding point

(H)

3 mm backwards on line part A1-G

Last height

(A1-G)

Standard height of 70 mm

Last insole point

(A )

Same as by last insole construction

1

(Girth length line) Degree of ball line (Girth length line)

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1

1

2

1 1

1

2

Last Construction

41

(Fig.9)

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42

Last Construction

Girth points according to the golden cut. (See Fig.10) To calculate the Girth measure it is important to know where we can find these points. Whether we make lasts ourselves or check others’ lasts we must know these points. Each last factory has a measuring instrument for girth points (derived from the golden cut principle) because of the plastic form of the last.

The Girth points are stipulatd as follows: Connect with a line part, the points A1 – B1. Take the length of A1-D1; this is the foot length. On the foot length we apply the golden cut principle. We can find Point R with the help of the golden cut principle for the last contents construction. From point R, in 90 degrees on the basis line A1-D1, draw vertical a line part (=R-S) Draw this line part until the sole side from the last. 7 mm. above the sole side we find point P. P is the Girth point at the side of the last. From P, on the vertical line part P-S, we set up line part from 22 degrees (these 22 degrees are an experience number). The 22 degree line cut the last on the middle Girth point of the last C1. The Girth measure we measure with a measuringtape to lay this tape to the nose side, directly against the Girth points.

Measure the instep point; This point is fixed by dividing the length of line A1-D1, in two equal pieces. The middle we call point M. On the basis line A1-D1, we draw up a vertical line in 90 degrees from point M. (line part M-N) Point N is the instep point. For the instep measurement, we measure with a measuring-tape. Lay this tape to the nose side, directly against the instep point. As we have here only one measuring point, we place the measuring-tape against the instep point and further along the narrowest part of the last at the sole part.

Hans van der Elzen

(Fig.10)

Last Construction

Girth point of the last insole. (See Fig.11) The girth point is 62% of the last length A-B, for Women’s and Men’s lasts. And 63% of the last length A-B, for Boys, Girls, and Children’s lasts. The Girth point is always calculated from the last length from a normal last.

Length of Girth line. The length of the Girth line is 1/5 part of the total Girth measurement. For the Girth measure we use a formula, last Length, plus width number and divided by 2. The outcome we express to centimeters.

43

When the foot stands on a higher heel, then we need another heel arc.

The heel arc is as follows calculated: Heel height: 20 mm. = heel arc line in 90 degrees on line part A1 – C; Heel height: 30 mm. = heel arc line in 91 degrees on line part A1 – C; Heel height: 40 mm. = heel arc line in 92 degrees on line part A1 – C; Heel height: 50 mm. = heel arc line in 93 degrees on line part A1 – C;

Also you can use the table 32, from the German Last factory Behrens. With the same data of table 32 of Behrens, we see the Girth measure in millimeters.

Degrees of Girth line. 90 degrees on line part of C-A1, irrespective of the heel height.

The toe spring. These are dependent of the system and heel altitude of the shoe. If it is a stiff system, then we take more toe spring. If it is a smooth system, then we take less toe spring. It is important that the foot is not obstructed during walking.

As a termination point we considered the next rule: Men’s last: with a Heel height from 20 á 30 mm = 14 á 18 mm. Women’s last: with a Heel height from 60 á 70 mm = 5 á 10 mm. Women’s last: with a Heel height from 50 á 60 mm = 10 á 12 mm. Women’s last: with a Heel height from 20 á 40 mm = 12 á 14 mm. Children’s last: with a Heel height from 10 á 20 mm. = 12 á 15 mm.

Degrees of the heel arc line. Line part, A1 - G stipulates the direction of the heel arc.

(Fig.11)

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44

Last Construction

Toe-Thickness. (See Fig.12)

See below diagram:

The toe thickness we set out from point D The toes must have sufficient space.

Heel height: 20 mm, help medial line A1 – E, expand from point A1, = 5 degrees;

The minimum toe thickness measurement for: • Men’s last is 24 á 25 mm. • Women lasts is 22 á 23 mm. • Kids lasts is 18 á 22 mm.

Heel height: 30 mm, help medial line A1 – E, expand from point A1, = 6 degrees;

The lowest number for these toe thickness is the absolute minimum! The space for the toes definitely cannot be thinner than in the above diagram is indicated.

Heel height: 40 mm, help medial line A1 – E, expand from point A1, = 7 degrees;

Heel width point. (We call this point by the last, heel pressure point) This point is calculated in the same manner as by the last insole construction. For making the sole plastic, this point is used for the heel contour depth. If we create this depth, then we must pay attention to the heel height of the upper. The heel of the foot then falls deeper in the shoe.

Heel length point. This is ¼ part of the foot length A - D (expand from point A) This length point is important for the heel measurement. We draw a medial line slightly parallel with the heel line to get more beautiful course of the heel.

Help medial point. Line part A1 – E, stipulates together with the medial line A1 – C, the direction of this medial line of the last. The medial line of the last we draw between these two lines. Point E is always the ½ last lengths from line part A-B.

Degrees of Help medial line. The degrees arc of this line depends on the heel height. On a heel height of 20 mm this line stands in 5 degrees on line part A1 - C, expand from point A1. With each 10 mm more of the heel height, we increase the help medial line with 1 degree. (Fig.12)

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Last Construction

45

Length of heel line. (See Fig.13)

Degrees from de heel line.

For women’s and men’s lasts the length of the heel line A1-F is 63% of the girth measure. For Boys, Girls and Children lasts this length A1 - F is 62% of the girth measure.

The heel line (A1-F) stands in 42 degrees on line part (A1-C), with a heel height of 20 mm. For every 10 mm. higher heel height, the heel line increases 1 degree.

For the training of shoe techniques we use de following formula.

See diagram mentioned below:

2/3 (last length + 1/10 last length + width number) = the total heel size in centimeters. The outcome, x 3/7 gives then the length of the heel line in centimeters.

20 mm, heel height, heel line A1-F stands on 42 degrees on line part A1-C; 30 mm, heel height, heel line A1-F stands on 43 degrees on line part A1-C; etc, etc.

For example: Size 41, width number 6 Formula: 41 + 4.1 + 6 = 51.1 x 2/3 = 34 cm x 3/7 = 14.5 cm. 63% from the Girth: (41 +6 = 47: 2 = 23.5 cm) See table 32, Behrens Germany Size 41, width number 6 = 235 mm x 62% =145 mm = 14.5 cm. Attention! 62% is for Boys, Girls and Children’s lasts. The heel Girth. The heel girth we measure on the instep point from the last. We lay the measure tape directly against the instep point of the last to the direction of the nose side and further around the heel point A1. Also here we use the formula: 2/3 (last length + 1/10 last length + width number) = the total heel size in centimeters. For example: Size 40, width number 6. Formula: 40 + 4.0 + 6 = 50.0 x 2/3 = 33.3 cm. 145% from the Girth measure: (40 + 6 = 46: 2 = 23.0 cm) see table 32, Behrens Germany. Size 40, width number 6 = 230 mm x 145% = 333 mm. = 33.3 cm. The real heel Girth, when the last is made, we calculate this as follow: For women’s and men’s lasts we calculate 150% of the Girth measure for heel measure. For boys’, girls’, and childrens’ lasts, we calculate 149% of the girth measures the heel measure. (Fig.13)

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46

Last Construction

Heel arc rounding point (Fig.14).

The last height.

For size 42 the point of the heel arc bow line, lays 30 mm above point A1. This point we call point H. By 2 sizes more or - less, the distance between A1 – H becomes 1 mm more or -less.

The standard last height is 70 mm. This standard height of the last is made for working with different shoe making machines. However, this last height can be made as the shoe manufacturer wishes for his machines.

The heel arc contour is one of the most difficult lines from a last model. The lasts made for high booths this line lays on point G further behind, to get thereby a nicer shape of the upper. The flank sides of the last are thereby very important. When we make this flank sides to thin than we must make the heel arc bow straighter. If we don’t do this than the heel arc bow will damage/ cut the heel of the foot.

(Fig.14)

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Last Construction

47

REMARKS: As we can see there are many points we need to consider to make the correct fitting lasts. The experience and the “know how” for making lasts is very important. The correct data will give you a good direction for making and controlling a last. We are allowed to change some points as long as we know how to compensate this. It must be clear that the type of lasts depends of the type of shoes we want to make. Professional skill is therefore needed.

When we work with the standard measures for the lasts, we can see that the foot fit’s in the correct position. It is very important that the Girth point is placed as we have explained before. When the foot carries the body weight the foot will find, due to the pressure of the body weight, automatically the best fitting places created by the last (Fig.15).

(Fig.15)

With this picture you can see what happens when the standard measures are not respected! This mistake you can find by many lasts and shoes. Here you can see that the foot is pushed too much to the front part due to the wrong Girth point. A bad fit is the result. The toes will be damaged and the foot will slip out of the shoe (Fig.16)

(Fig.16)

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48

Last Construction

Control and measure the lasts for producing the correct shoe types.

Control the Ankle measure

Control the Girth and Instep measure When we have measured the Last length, Girth, Instep and Ankle points than we must control as well the back part line of the last. It has happened several times that these lines are made too much to the inside of the last and will hurt the feet by the Achilles muscle what is very painfully during walking. We measure the back part line by using a winkle as you see on (Fig.17).

(Fig.17)

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Last Construction

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Place the last on the winkle Fig.18, the space by point A should be 3 mm and by point B, at the correct quarter height of the last the space should be 2 mm.

(Fig.18) On Fig.19 you can see that point B is made too much inside of the last and will hurt the feet during walking. It can happened that also point A is too much inside and that the heel rounding is too round what will give the shoe an ugly look. Sometimes point B is too close to the winkle at heel height and that results that your foot is slipping out during walking.

(Fig.19)

Control also if the “toe thickness” is correct. (Fig.20)

(Fig.20)

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Proportions

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CHAPTER 6: PROPORTIONS

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Proportions

Standards for the correct proportions People have tried since antiquity to measure the proportions of the human body to fit harmoniously within a certain diagram. Leonardo da Vinci (1452 - 1519) and Albrecht Durer (1471-1528) especially intensively studied the body’s proportions. Leonardo da Vinci studied the anatomy by carrying out autopsies of the human body. Moreover he was painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, musician, writer, thinker and scientific research worker.

Their findings as comparative material have not lost their value even today. It is almost impossible that two people are built with the exact same proportions. However, after a large number of comparitive measuring, a standard norm has been established.

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Proportions

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By using this standard norm, we can determine an individual’s construction norm. Investigative research and analysis has determined that the human body is built according to the principle of the” golden cut” proportions.

The golden cut is the partitioning of a line part in extreme and middle proportion.

A calculation from this proportion until 3 decimal places provides closely 0,618: 1 or approximately 5: 8.

This partitioning must be so that the smallest part is in proportion to the largest as largest to the complete line part.

This implies that a line of 1000 mm after dividing according to the Golden cut the largest piece 618 mm and the smallest piece 382 mm measures.

Draw a rectangular triangle of which line part A-C is the half of line part A-B.

The “Golden cut” played an important part particularly in the Renaissance period in art and architecture as a standard for harmoniously proportions.

The value is not exactly calculable; she can be determined only by geometrical construction as follows; Example: basic line A-B is 10 cm, line part A-C is 5 cm. Connect with a line the point’s B-C. Using a passer, the length from A-C, make a circle from point C. We name the cutting point on line part C-B, point D. Measure afterwards with the passer the length from B-D. From point B with the passer circle out point E on the basic line A-B.

The human body has been built according to the proportions of the Golden cut (therefore also the foot). The best possible way for making shoes is also using the Golden cut principle. The professional designer always looks for the proportions within the shoe. When the proportions of the shoe conform with the proportions of the foot, then they are in harmony. Entirely good proportions arise by standards norms. We have applied these standards throughout this book and to lasts - and basic pattern models.

Now we know the proportion between A - B, A-E and E-B. This is what we call “the Golden Cut”.

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Shoe types and constructions

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CHAPTER 7: SHOE TYPES AND CONSTRUCTIONS

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Shoe types and constructions

Oxford shoes, Blucher and Balmoral Bluchers A Blucher refers to the way a Derby style shoe ties up. See the brackets to the right? That is a good representation of the way a Blucher acts. A Blucher is far more adjustable than a Balmoral because the bottom of the lace-up part of the

shoe is not sewn down, so it can be pulled tight or left more open in the area around the ball of the foot.

Balmorals A Balmoral (or "Bal") refers to the way an Oxford style shoe ties up. A Balmoral is far less adjustable than a Blucher because the bottom of the lace-up part of the shoe is sewn down, so the part of the shoe around the ball of the foot can only be one

circumference and cannot be adjusted smaller or larger. Oxfords, characterized by shoelace eyelet tabs that are stitched underneath the vamp contrast with Derby’s, or Blücher design, characterized by shoelace eyelet tabs that are sewn on top of the vamp.

Brogue shoe (Also called Balmorals) The Brogue is a style of low heeled shoe or boot traditionally characterized by multiplepiece, sturdy leather uppers with decorative perforations and serration along the pieces visible edges.

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Brogues were traditionally considered to be outdoor or country footwear not otherwise appropriate for casual or business occasions, but brogues are now considered appropriate in most contexts.

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57

Venetian style shoe Venetian style shoes  (venetian-style loafers) are mid-heel slippers with an upper or top part that is slightly open to the kick of the foot and the ankle bone. The term came from Great Britain.

Loafers are “Slip on shoes with a moccasin toe construction and slotted straps stitched across vamps”.

Derby shoe A Derby or Gibson (also called a Blücher or “bucks”) is a style of shoe characterized by shoelace eyelet tabs that are sewn on top of the vamp, a

construction method that is also sometimes referred to as “open lacing” where the tongue cut in one piece with the forepart.

(Detail of a man's derby style dress shoe showing lacing eyelet tabs sewn on top of the vamp).

Oxfords (or bal-type), in contrast to blücher, are characterized by shoelace eyelet tabs that are stitched underneath the vamp. The Blucher design is named after Prussian general Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, one of Napoleon's more formidable opponents who decided his troops needed better shoes and commissioned a boot with side pieces lapped over the

front. This design was adopted by armies across Europe, became a trendy sporting and hunting shoe in the 1850s, and then became appropriate for town affairs in the turn of the century.

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Shoe types and constructions

Wellington boot The Wellington boot also known as rubber-boots, wellies, wellingtons, topboots, Billyboots, gumboots, gummies, barn boots, Wellie boots, muck boots, sheep boots, shit-kickers or rain boots are a type of boot based upon leather Hessian boots. They were worn and popularized by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. This novel "Wellington" boots then became a fashionable style emulated by the British aristocracy in the early 19th century.

Moccasin A moccasin is a slipper made of deerskin or other soft leather, consisting of a sole and sides made of one piece of leather, stitched together at the top, and sometimes with a vamp (additional panel of leather).

The sole is soft and flexible and the upper part often is adorned with embroidery or beading, etc. Historically, it is the footwear of many Native American people; moreover, hunters, traders, and European settlers wore them.

Opanak are a kind of traditional shoes worn in Serbia, Bosnia, Herzegovina, Croatia,  Macedonia and Bulgaria. The attributes of the Opanci are: a construction of leather, lack of laces, durable, and have hornlike ending on toes.

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The design of the horn-like ending indicates the region of Serbia the shoes are from. The concept, and the word, exists in  Romania  (asopincă) which is borrowed from Slavic. The opanaks are considered the traditional peasant footwear for people in the Balkan region.

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Monk shoe A monk shoe  is a style of shoe with no lacing, closed by a buckle and strap. It is moderately formal shoe: less formal than a full Oxford (American: Balmorals); but more so than an open Derby (American: Blücher).

In between these, it is one of the main categories of men's shoes. It often has a cap toe, it is occasionally brogued, and is popular in suede.

Boat shoes Boat shoes (also known as deck shoes or topsiders) are typically canvas or leather with non-marking rubber sole designed for use on a boat. Modern boat shoes were invented in 1935 by Paul Sperry after noticing his dog's ability to run easily over ice without slipping. Boat shoes are traditionally

worn without socks. Boat shoes are used by sailors, as the name suggests; however, since the 1980s they have become fashionable footwear in America, the UK, Portugal, and France. Some boat shoes today have traditional white, non-marking soles, though many others today have dark non-marking soles.

Slip-on shoe Slip-ons  are typically low, laceless shoes. The style most commonly seen, known as a loafer in American culture, has a moccasin construction. First appearing in the mid-1930s from Norway, they began as casual shoes, but have increased in

popularity to the point of being worn in America with city lounge suits. They are worn in many situations in a wide variety of colors and designs, often featuring tassels on the front, or metal decorations (the 'Gucci' loafer).

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Shoe types and constructions

Strobel Slip Last Strobel Slip Last shoe construction method stitches a sole-shaped fabric board to the upper of the shoe that is slipped onto a last, closing the upper with stitches around the perimeter of the sole. The board may be varied from thin flexible materials to thicker stable materials, or a combination of the two stitched together, to improve stability or flexibility.

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The word “Strobel” describes the specific way of stitching upper leathers and lining to the insole of footwear. The Strobel construction offers a much higher flexibility and strength than many other types of construction. The outsole is normally either cemented or stitched to the insole to complete manufacture.

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Norwegian construction Every single centimeter of leather is stretched, tacked, and sewn by hand on the last, together with a single welt. The welt is made rigorously by hand bordered asymmetrically along the profile of the insole lining.

Stitch-Down construction The upper is stretched over the last, folded or flanged out and glued to the midsole. They are then stitched with a “lockstitch” machine and cement bonded to the soles using a neoprene adhesive. A lockstitch has a top and bottom stitch which is inter-stitched. This stitching will not unravel even if a stitch is removed.

Stitch-down construction shoes can use leathers of higher oil, fat content than cement construction and therefore have a suppler feel. Good stitch-down shoes are stitched using the lockstitch method for greater security. (Won’t unravel)

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Shoe types and constructions

The Blake Stitched The Blake stitched is also called through and through construction. Blake is the name of the inventor who realized, at the end of the 19th century, a machine which allows to mechanize the through and through stitch. The Blake welted is a simple and solid construction. It allows having at the same time a welted and light shoe. This method is perfectly adapted to the smart dress shoes with a leather outsole: loafers, moccasins, styles with buckles, oxford shoes. The upper is first lasted on a plastic production shoe last. Then the outsole is put in position. After that the shoe last is withdrawn and the Blake stitching is realized from the inside to the outside in order to join the upper with the welt and the sole.

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The Blake welted, as well as the Goodyear welted, can also be easily removed to put a new sole as often as necessary. If all the components used in this type of construction are good ones, with a great level of quality, Blake welted is synonymous of luxury shoes. Today, several famous brands offer quite only Blake welted shoes: Berlutti, Santoni, Stefanobi, Testoni... At the beginning, just after the purchase of a Blake welted shoe, you are more comfortable. After some days of use, the Goodyear construction is more comfortable. It is up to you to choose the construction which feels better for you.

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The Goodyear Welted The Goodyear Welted was invented in United States at the end of the XIXth century by Charles Goodyear Junior, son of Charles Goodyear, the inventor of the vulcanization. The Goodyear welted, except with its origins, is completely different of the vulcanization.

Technology. A Goodyear welted shoe is made with two stitching: The first one called “Goodyear” is realized with the Goodyear machine. It joins the welt, the upper, and the insole.

The natural cork has the particularity to take bit by bit the shape of the foot. As a result, you have the feeling that your shoe is made-to-measure and you cannot give up it. Today, all the great names of the luxury industry: Para boot, Weston, Church, Edward Green, Crocket and Jones… still respect this tradition of Goodyear Construction. The Goodyear welted is the must of the smart shoes for men. In current language, Goodyear welted is synonymous of luxury English shoes for men.

The second one is made with a “Little Points” machine. This stitching links the sole with the welt. This construction is very long-lasting. Other benefit: the foot is lying on a leather insole which is on a thickness of natural cork.

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Shoe types and constructions

The Bologna construction The Bologna construction is the best for elegant and comfortable shoes. This method is quite expensive and until today, there were just few famous Italian shoemakers who proposed it. Technically, the Bologna construction is a Blake one without insole for lasting. This one is replaced by a tubular lining which goes all around the foot.

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To give more comfort, the tubular lining is made with two-ply leather reinforced with an extra soft pad positioned where the foot will rest. The Bologna construction is definitely the solution to take advantage of a great comfort without saying goodbye to the elegance and the smart touch of formal shoes for men.

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The Real Moccasin This is a shoe made from a single piece of leather, passing around the front part of the foot and under the sole. The apron is then sewn on the top to give a firm but comfortable grip on the foot. These Shoe types and constructions are a few and you will find many of them on the internet web pages. It is good to know the most of them.

I only can guaranty that the way we explain it to you will result in a very good fitting upper and de lasting from these uppers will be very easy and smooth. It is very important that the upper will fit on the last correctly as this will have a big influence for the correct fitting for the shoe in total.

The next Chapter we will start with “How to make the correct paper patterns” for several shoe types. There are many different ways to these paper patterns for shoe uppers.

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Shoe types and constructions

Outsole; profile not too heavy

with a running roll effect and for easy running, high toe-spring. Rubber and phylon combined must be light and flexible.

Outsole; with rubber and phylon

combined, with Lateral TPU shank support, stable looking, must be light in weight. In-sock with cushion. Also can be Shell-molded Rubber unit bottom with stitching around the side wall of

Upper; Sportive looking shoe.

Upper; Sportive looking

shoe.

Outsole; with special dots for soccer games. Normally 13 studs for training and 7 studs for match in PU injection unit bottom.

shoe.

Outsole; look like vulcanized.

Upper; Sportive looking

Outsole; look like vulcanized.

Upper; Sportive looking

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Upper; Sportive looking

shoe for skating with thick foam on quarter line. Normally in Blucher look so that it can be tightened up on foot.

shoe for skating with normal foam on heel line.

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67

Upper; For indoor sports,

Outsole; Important: light weight/

Upper; Sportive looking

Outsole; rubber outsole

Upper;

Typical classic styles, mainly made in leather or action leather.

Outsole; Rubber look with Eva

Upper; Sportive lighter

Outsole; light in weight, rubber with at least 80% phylon or Eva midsole. Insole with cushion, very comfortable for walking.

Upper; Canvas, easy/

Outsole; rubber or vulcanized

like soccer, squash, badminton, table tennis and others.

shoe, mainly using mesh for upper-breathable and light weight.

look than outdoor type. Breathable materials for upper and real light weight in total,

simple/light weight but mainly in fashion color or printed textile.

thin outsole in transparent colors in combination with Eva or Phylon. Normally in Crepe or gum rubber sole for wear-resisting.

combined with EVA.

combined.

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Shoe types and constructions

Outsole; from leather or rubber.

Upper; Classic looking

Outsole; light in weight.

Upper; Fashion looking

shoe type for daily wear.

shoe, using materials and combinations.

trendy color

Outsole; stable looking and not Upper; Sportive looking heavy. Normal lasting or double lasting with comfortable insole.

boot special made for the performance of basketball games. Normally with high-cut look for protecting the ankle bone.

Outsole; medium or heavy profile Upper; Sportive strong outsole, combination with rubber and phylon, flexible.

looking shoe or booth with resistant materials and toe and heel protectors. Similar to the Hiking shoe but much lighter in total weight. Can also perform in high-cut.

Outsole; must be light in weight Upper; Sportive looking used for mounting walking. With medium or heavy outsole profile,

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boot High-cut for protecting ankle with heavy foam padding collar, for comfort and flexible issue normally in combination with heavy mesh for upper material.

Paper Patterns

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CHAPTER 8: PAPER PATTERNS

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Paper Patterns

This picture show the most common names of the shoe parts.

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Paper Patterns 71

Sizes In mm

Sport shoe Heights

Sizes In mm

Normal shoe Heights

24

54

24

44

25

55

25

45

26

55

26

45

27

56

27

46

28

56

28

46

29

57

29

47

30

57

30

47

31

60

31

48

32

61

32

49

33

63

33

51

34

63

34

51

35

64

35

52

36

66

36

53

37

66

37

54

38

67

38

55

39

69

39

56

40

69

40

57

41

70

41

58

42

72

42

59

43

72

43

60

44

73

44

61

45

75

45

62

46

75

46

63

47

76

47

64

THESE BACKPART SHOE HEIGHTS MEASUREMENTS ARE WITHOUT INSOLES! We always measure inside of the shoe! DEPENDS ON THE THICKNESS OF THE INSOLES WE MUST ADD THE THICKNESS “EXTRA” TO THESE MEASUREMENTS!

***** Please note that you will need these backpart heights when you make paper patterns!

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Paper Patterns

Before we start making paper patterns we need to find and mark the construction points from the last. This will be a good help for making the paper last copy and later the paper patterns.

Through the measuring tape we connect A and B. We start with the measuring tape at the back part line A and then we move forwards to nose point B. On the measuring tape we measure with the centimeters visible. The total centimeters found at point B we keep in our memory for the second step. Point A is plus / minus 3 centimeter above the sole side of the last. (See Fig.1)

(Fig.1) By the middle of the measuring tape we connect A and B. Now the measuring tape is with the French and English sizes visible, based on the number of centimeters we found in Fig.1 (for example 30 cm.) we count 30 French sizes. With the same number in French sizes we see on the measuring tape, we put a straight line in 90 degrees to the centerline of the last. This point is C, Vamp length point. (See Fig.2)

(Fig.2)

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Paper Patterns

(Fig.3)

73

(Fig.5)

By the middle of the measuring tape we connect A and B.

When we put the last on the correct heel height (XY) we can find point F.

The number we found dividing by 2. We make a straight line from the measuring tape at 90 degrees to the centerline of the last.

Point F can be found at the deepest point of the last. We call this point F also Girth point of the last. (See Fig.5)

This point found is the instep point D. (See Fig.3)

(Fig.4)

(Fig.6)

Point E is the heel height and is measured from the sole side of the last upwards.

Make a straight line from point C to F and divide this length by 2.

With each size larger we increase the height about 1 mm up. (See Fig.4)

This is the way to find point G. This point G is called the low lateral instep point. (See Fig.6)

For each size smaller we decrease the height by 1 mm down. See the table for the heel heights in the beginning of this book.

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Paper Patterns

(Fig.7) All found points will be connecting to another point. Point D is the instep point. (See Fig.7)

(Fig.9) Point X is on the back part last line, just at the intersection of the line and the sole heel area of ​​the last. Point H is found by connecting points F and X, 2 / 3 part of the distance from X to point H. Point H is called the quarter support point. (See Fig.9)

(Fig.8) Instep point D is drawn at the middle line of the last and will used as a baseline. From point D draw one line at a 90 degree line on the instep C - D, in order to obtain a helpline from D to D 1. (See Fig. 8)

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Paper Patterns 75

All fixed lines and layout issues are now fixed on the last. Any desired model can now be drawn the in the right proportion. Drawing a design on the last you learned and will see better the real proportions and form of shoe and last. (See Fig.10)

(Fig.10)

Help line G-E is important for your quarter part height of the shoe. By designing your quarter part higher than the help line G-E you will damage the ankle of the feet and walking will be very pain full.

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Fish-bone last copy

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CHAPTER 9: FISH-BONE LAST COPY

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Fish-bone last copy

1. Find the middle line of the last. The lasts are a-symmetrical, this means that you find on the outside of the last more material than on the inside (See last A)

2. To get a clearer picture of the middle line, the sole part can help you determine where to capture the center lines. (See last insole B)

3. Draw the middle line. Draw on the last the middle line exactly in a straight line over the last. Draw these lines very carefully, both for toe and instep and back part.

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Fish-bone last copy

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4. Draw the outline of the last. Place the last with the inside on a sheet of drawing paper. The last rest then most stable. Now draw an outline with the pencil around the last. See, before you draw the contour of the outline the images A-B-C-D. To obtain a good outline it is important to keep the pencil vertically along the last parts.

5. Draw a line on 20 mm. distance beyond the already drawn line of the last, except at the top of the last, (ankle part). Here is 15 mm. distance enough! Then draw a dotted line at 10 mm. distance within the last line. The cuts, which we need to cut later, we draw according to the image. Note specially the lines on the nose, heel, and instep parts that need radically to be drawn.

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Fish-bone last copy

6. Cut out Rough copy. Cut two rough copies. For the outside part one piece and one for the inside part of the last. Cut the drawing carefully in the drawn lines.

7. The copy must be set down on the flanks of the last. This avoids twisting of the rough copy of the last.

8. To apply the rough copy. Put the rough copy with tacks (nails) of 15 to 20 mm. down the last flanks. Make sure that the rough cut copy covers all lines to be draw.

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Fish-bone last copy

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9. Draw the middle line. Carefully draw the middle line of the rough copy. This copy may not be moved during drawing.

10. Draw also the top of the last. Position the last flat on the worktable.

11. The line of the sole side also must be drawn. Again be careful that the copy does not move during drawing the outlines.

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Fish-bone last copy

12. Take special care of the toe and heel part (on the sole side). Cut the tabs of the rough copy in the same radius as it is drawn. See illustrations A and B. When we don’t do this right then we do not get a clear line of the last.

13. Cutting the last lines as we have marked. Cut the marked lines from the last rough copy accurately, both inside and outside the copy. Avoid any tearing of the rough copy. Provide a sharp knife,

14. Draw the copies. Drawing the both obtained copies (inside and outside last copy) to the drawing paper. Provide an accurate reproduction.

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Fish-bone last copy

83

15. The copy must be cut straight out, so that we can make from the surfaces a medium last copy.

16. Draw the medium last copy. First draw the outside last copy on the drawing paper. After that, draw the inside last copy. The points A-B-C shall be positioned exactly the same from both rough copies. (See illustration). A- Girth point B- Instep point C- heel part.

17. Draw the medium, as the images A and B show. (Medium is indicated by a dotted line.)

18. Cut the medium last copy. At the bottom of the copy (sole side) cut the outer contour lines (points D and E). Line F we cancel. Line G shows the inside of the last. From all other lines we cut the medium.

Now we have a Medium copy.

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Adhesive last copy

85

CHAPTER 10: ADHESIVE LAST COPY

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Adhesive last copy

19. How to make a last copy with adhesive paper tape.

20. Add adhesive tape on the flanks from both sides of the last. (See illustration B) Stick the tape in the length and height of the last in order to avoid stretching later when we need to pull-off the tape from the last.

21. Draw the middle line on the last in the same way as you see under point 1, 2, and 3. (See illustration C)

22. Cut exactly the middle line and all other marked lines out on the last. (See illustration D)

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Adhesive last copy

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23. Now you have a clean paper copy still glued on to the last. In this way you are able to draw your design on this adhesive last copy. (See illustration E).

24. After you have drawn your design pull-off very carefully the paper copy while stretching it. (See illustration F)

25. The adhesive paper copy is removed from the last. (See illustration G)

26. Stick the paper copy on drawing paper and make sure that you do not stretch it. Stick it down from the middle (see the arrows on illustration H) to the sides.

27. After the paper copy is applied well to the drawing paper make the medium copy and cut it out as you see by the points 15 till 18

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Wet paper last copy

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CHAPTER 11: WET PAPER LAST COPY

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Wet paper last copy

To make a “wet last copy” we take a usual packing paper and cut this paper around the last and then give a few cuttings as you see on the Illustration. With small foam we make the paper a little bid wet with normal water. Do not make the paper too wet!

The outlines of the last we mark with a black marker, mainly a black cool marker is ok for it. Mark as well the girth and instep points as later you will need them.

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Wet paper last copy

91

Put the last carefully on slightly wet paper. Make sure that you put the wet paper against the black market lines without moving the wet paper in any direction. This part is not easy as you need to practice several times in the beginning. After finding your way, you will be able to make a last copy within a few minutes. See as well the illustrations.

When you have pushed the wet paper against the black lines on the last you can see now these black lines appear on the wet paper, see illustration right side under.

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Wet paper last copy

After you have made from the last, the copy from the lateral and the medial side you must make the medium paper copy of the last. Draw first the lateral copy on flat paper with the 3 marked points as you can see on the illustration at the left upper corner and then you draw the medial paper copy inside. Important is that both paper copies are crossing parallel with each other at the points A and B. Now you draw a line exactly between the lateral and medial paper last copies as you see on the illustration below (red stipple lines). This new line you cut out

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and that’s what we call our “medium paper copy” of the last. This medium last copy we use to set up our paper pattern. ONLY when your medium paper last copy is made 100% correct than your paper pattern will fit on the last. (Of course your paper pattern needs to be made as well 100% correct. Every well made pattern starts with an 100% correct paper Last Copy)

Construction help lines

93

CHAPTER 12: CONSTRUCTION HELP LINES

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Construction help lines

Names of construction points and lines in the copy for low cut paper patterns

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Vamp length point Instep point Quarter height point Lateral instep point Medial instep point Ball/Girth point Shank point Heel height point

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A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H.

Basic heel height line Heel height line Copy line Ball/Girth line Lateral quarter line Medial quarter line Lay on/or lay under helpline Instep helpline

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95

(Fig.1) To get the correct proportion of a shoe design on your last copy we set-up construction lines as following; 1. Set your paper copy out on the correct heel height A-A1. Make sure that the inside of your copy rest on the basic line A-B. 2. Point C 1 you find in the same way as we explained on page 72, point C (Fig.2) 3. Point C you find in the same way as we explained on page 73, point F (Fig.5) 4. Point C3 is the half part of C-C1 5. Point C4 is 1/3 part of C-C1 6. Point A2 is the correct quarter height for your shoe size and you find this table on page 67 7. Line A-D is 15 mm shorter than line A-B 8. Point C2 we calculate from line A-D, where A-C2 is 62% from line A-D 9. After finding the points you see on Fig.1, connect all the points with lines.

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Construction help lines

96

(Fig.2) The Instep helpline and the Lay on helpline we find as following; 1. 2. 3. 4.

Point F we find in the same way as you see on page 73, point D (Fig.3) Point H we explain on page 74, (Fig.9) Connect the points C3-H Draw the line F-G as you see on Fig.2

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Construction help lines

97

Illustration A

When you have some more experience with paper copies and last measurements you also can find the important proportion points as you can see on the Illustrations A and B.

Illustration B

Measure always your last as you can see on Illustration B (Fig.4) the length from point A-A1 and control this on your paper copy.

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98

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Derby Blucher

99

CHAPTER 13: DERBY BLUCHER

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100 Derby Blucher

A Derby Blucher for the shoe designer is one of the most satisfying shoe types. On this type of shoe he can design many variations of application. The closure of this type of shoe adapts well to the foot, so that a perfect fit can be achieved.

It is possible that two different shoe designers are modeling on the same last the derby Moliere and that one shoe designer create a perfect fit, while the other creates the opposite result.

It is this type of shoe that you see a lot from the orthopedics and footwear manufactures, as sport, walking, or comfort shoes. The proper modeling of this type of shoe is very important because many people wear this type of shoe.

Sometimes in a situation like this they thinking that the bad fitting of the last cause the wrong look but is in fact a question of wrong modeling. The correct modeling for standards we explain step by step in this book. Drawing a paper pattern in the correct manner we ensure proper fit of the upper on each type of last.

When the last has the right fit it can be that by incorrectly modeling the correct fit it can turn out negatively.

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Derby Blucher

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Toecap Vamp Yelets holes Tongue Medial quarter part Lateral quarter part

A. B. C. D. E. F. G.

Folding line Quarter flap line Vamp quarter line Lateral quarter line Medial quarter line Quarter lay-on line Tongue line

101

H. Quarter back line J. Vamp under lay line K. Trench stitching line L. Montage folding line M. Paper copy line N. Toecap line

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102 Derby Blucher

Illustration 1

Illustration 2

e Und

r-lay

Illustration 3

Every pattern part what is stitched UNDER another pattern part must have under-lay. The under-lay is normally 10 mm wide. Illustration 2 shows you that the vamp (B) has under-lay for the toe-puff (A) and the quarter part (C). For the finish of model lines (cutting edges) we can make side folding of the upper material. For side folding we add 5 mm to the pattern parts, see illustration 3 in blue color. On upper vamp part B we mark the under-lay lines for the correct stitching from the upper material parts A an C.

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Derby Blucher

103

(Fig.2) The quarter line (lateral) of a Blucher is not an easy line to draw. Create a distribution of the help lines (see picture) so it is somewhat easier to draw the quarter line in the appropriate way. (Fig.2)

(Fig.3) The dotted line A is the normal quarter line, line B is a quarter line that is drawn too high. The quarter Line B will cut in the foot and will hurt the ankle, while the design of the quarterback will look to heavy (Fig.3).

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104 Derby Blucher

(Fig.4) Dotted line A is the normal quarter line. Quarter Line B is a quarter line that is drawn too low. Quarter Line B will yawn and therefore will stay open from the last, because the lines are very close to the flanks of the last. (Fig.4)

(Fig.5) The modeling of a low shoe type has a medial and lateral quarter line. This is necessary in connection with the arches; the arch is medially higher than laterally. Both quarter construction lines indicate how the quarter lines must be drawn. (Fig.5)

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Derby Blucher

105

(Fig.6) On Illustration 1, the “quarter back part line” is a line that must fit perfectly on the last. It is very important that we draw the “quarter back part line”, 3 mm inside the paper copy. At the heel height we draw the “quarter back part line” 2 mm outside the paper copy in order to give space for the counter between the lining and upper leather.

the counter. Point A is drawn too much inside the paper pattern and this will damage the feet. On illustration 3, you see that the “quarter back part line” by point A is not drawn inside of the paper pattern. The feet will slip out of the shoe during walking.

On illustration 2, you see the “quarter back part line” too round and therefore point B will not fit on the last and gives too much space for

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106 Derby Blucher

Fig.7) The quarter flaps from the Blucher Derby must follow as close as possible to the construction lines of the paper copy (A).The vamp quarter line we draw 4 mm below the lateral quarter line in order to get enough and good instep space. (See fig.7).

(Fig.8) Fig. 8, see the correct quarter flaps from a Blucher Derby on the last shape.

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Derby Blucher

107

(Fig.9) The quarter flaps from the Blucher Derby are drawn to round below the construction lines (A). This will result in an ugly look for this type of shoe (Fig.9).

(Fig.10) Fig.10, see the quarter flaps from a Blucher Derby on the last shape when the lines are not correctly drawn.

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108 Derby Blucher

(Fig.11) Illustration 1, the lay-on lines we draw in a way that we have enough space on the quarter between the quarter line and lay-on line, for adding an application stitching. The trenches we stitch on the quarters are 12 mm long for thin calf leather, and 15 mm long for thicker leather. The trenches we stitch 10 mm above the lay-on line.

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On illustration 2, you see point A is the normal lay-on line. B is drawn too low and the quarter part at this point looks too heavy and not nice. On Illustration 3, you see A as the normal layon line. B is drawn too high and the quarter part at this point is too small and the look is not nice.

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109

(Fig. 12) After we have drawn the quarter part and trenches we set-up the folding line points. (A folding line is the line where we fold the paper in order to make the vamp and other parts of the paper patterns). The folding point for the vamp we set-up with a winkle.

- The winkle we place on line A. at the top of the paper copy (Fig.12).

Both quarters (medial and lateral) must have the correct space between the trenches otherwise the upper will not fit correctly on the last. The leather between the trenches will show wrinkles and after the last is pull out from the finished shoe the shoe will show a bad and ugly shape.

(See Fig.2, on Page 96, Line A is the line through point C1 and point F)

- Point C is at the end of the trench from the quarter part.

In this way we find the exact space needed between the medial and lateral trenches. Point B is the correct folding point for the vamp.

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110 Derby Blucher

(Fig.13 Fig.13, point 1 we found with the winkle, point 2 we find at the top of the last and set-up on the paper pattern, 3 mm inside of the paper copy. The measurement for point 2 is the distance between the sole side and the nose-top of the last. At this point 2, the folding line lay under the last copy. Here we save leather material and by montage the upper on the last we get fewer wrinkles. The leather between the trenches on

the vamp by a Blucher is not stitched. Therefore a folding line drawn at the nose-point under the paper copy will give extra force to the flanks of the last and the vamp will not be pushed too much to the front. By montage of the upper on the last, it will be easier when front part of the upper is already looking downwards (through the correct folding line) and easy to place between the grips of the molding machine.

(Fig.14) After finding the points 1 and 2 we can draw the folding line 3 on the paper pattern (Fig.14).

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Derby Blucher

111

(Fig.15) Fig.15 shows clearly how we need to drawn a folding line for a Blucher Derby. Winkle A, is the correct way, equal to the copy line C1-F. Winkle B, is in the wrong way, too low and under the instep point. Winkle C, is in the wrong way, too high above the instep point. It is VERY IMPORTANT that you set-up the folding line correct, by not set-up the folding line correctly it will influence the fitting and the look of the shoe in a very negative way.

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112

Derby Blucher

(Fig.16) For the montage of the upper on the last we need to fold the upper material on the insole. How much we need to extend on the upper material depends on;

1. The thickness of the insole 2. The thickness of upper leather and lining

3. The system we use for the montage of the shoe. As standard norm we use for folding 16 mm, at the shank part 18 mm and at the nose part 15 mm. (See Fig.16)

(Fig.17) The length for the tongue we can measure exactly. Measure the length from the end of the trench point A and instep point B. Then from the same trench point A we set out the same length to the folding vamp line point C. We extend this

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length by 10 mm. During the montage of the upper on the last point C will be pushed a few mm to the front. The reason for this is that the vamp and the quarter part between the trenches are not stitched together. (See Fig.17)

Derby Blucher

113

(Fig.18) When we know the correct measurement of the tongue we can draw the tongue line with a small curve between the quarter help lines.

Draw the tongue line to the end of the trenches and then continue the drawing line with a distance of 10 mm the lay-on help line (See Fig.18).

Depending on the shoe size the tongue is between 6 and 7 cm wide (see A). Fig.19 shows you how we need to design the tongue of the shoe. The feet get during the day bigger, around 5%. The quarter flaps will get more distance from each other by point B. The tongue must protect our feet by point A. A tongue that is wide enough will protect our feet better and give us also the possibility to place a softer material when necessary by exostosis.

(Fig.19)

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114 Derby Blucher

(Fig.20) When we draw the tongue we make several times and the feet gets less protection especially at the the mistake at the beginning of folded vamp line. first point of eyelets and laces (See Fig.20). The tongue line we draw is too small at this place

(Fig.21) Also it happens that we draw the tongue line too round, (see by point B) here count the same as we explain by Fig.20.

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Draw always the tongue line at the folded vamp line a little curved as you can see on page 113 (Fig.19)

Derby Blucher

115

(Fig.22) The small lace or eyelet holes we set-up in general When we want to put bigger lace or eyelets 10 to 12 mm from the sides of the quarter flaps. holes we must add them with greater distances The distance between them is around 15 mm. from each other. Reinforce the quarter flaps, We must take care that we don’t put them to especially when you use thin upper leathers. close to the sides, because during the closing of (Fig.22) the laces we risk that they will tear out.

(Fig.23) It is VERY IMPORTANT that the quarter top shoe it will damage the ankle and make it almost part lines (see A and B) are drawn UNDER the impossible to walk (Fig.23). medial and lateral quarter help lines. When Later in this book I will explain how to draw these you draw these points A and B higher, than the quarter top part lines for Sportive shoes.

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116 Derby Blucher

(Fig.24) To draw the quarter lining must be done very carefully. The quarter lining must fit perfectly in the upper quarter part. The patterns for the lining we make 4 mm bigger at the quarter flaps as then we can stitch the lining better to the upper material. Especially take care at the end of the

trenches points as at those points the quarter and vamp lining must fit together. At the back part of the quarter we must take in (shorten), the counter must fit between the lining and upper material. By not shorten enough will lead to many wrinkles in the back part of the shoe (Fig.24).

(Fig.25) The vamp lining we draw 2 mm under the folding line at the nose-part from the upper material. At the tongue we make the vamp lining 2 mm larger for stitching the vamp lining to the upper. By the end of the trenches both parts (quarter and vamp) of the lining fit perfectly

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together. At the side parts, the quarter and vamp lining overlay is 10 mm. These parts we stitch first together and after that we place and glue the lining inside of the upper. After stitching we remove the extra lining from the upper material (Fig.25).

Derby Blucher

117

Low cut shoe paper pattern with Velcro straps

(Fig.26) 1. Draw on your paper copy the help lines. 2. Draw the eyelet stay, point B. 10 mm to the front direction from point A, Fig.26. (Here we get a better instep for the feet)

(Fig.27)

3. Draw two or more Velcro straps (depended the design) A and B. 4. Draw the Velcro straps 5 mm higher than the paper copy to the folding line C – D, Fig.27 (Due to the fact that the tongue and upper materials are under need the Velcro straps these Velcro straps otherwise they will be too short when the shoe is ready)

we need to enlarge

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118 Derby Blucher

(Fig.28)

5. Draw the eyelet stay and mark the lines E – F on it. 6. Extend the Velcro straps to the lines E – F, Fig.28 (With many designs you will be not able to make the eyelet stay in one piece as you see on this illustration, make than the cut under line E)

(Fig.29)

For your design there are many ways “how to make the inside look” of the shoe with Velcro straps. You can add extra pieces from upper materials, using big eyelets in the eyelets strap or only one piece of upper material, see Fig.29.

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Derby Blucher

119

The standard Derby Blucher knows 4 original styles. See below pictures

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120

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Balmoral 121

CHAPTER 14: BALMORAL

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122 Balmoral

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Toecap Vamp Yelets holes Tongue Medial quarter part Lateral quarter part Quarter back part

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A. B. C. D. E.

Folding line Quarter flap line Vamp quarter line Lateral quarter line Medial quarter line

G. Tongue line H. Quarter back line J. Quarter back part line K. Toecap line L. Montage folding line M. Paper copy line

Balmoral

123

Balmoral upper leather parts.

(Fig.1) Fig.1, see the upper parts without any underlay or extra material for finish the model lines. A Balmoral refers to the way an Oxford style shoe ties up.

Oxfords, characterized by shoelace eyelet tabs that are stitched underneath the vamp contrast with Derby’s, or Blucher design, characterized by shoelace eyelet tabs that are sewn on top of the vamp.

A Balmoral is far less adjustable than a Blucher because the bottom of the lace-up part of the shoe is sewn down, so the part of the shoe around the ball of the foot can only be one circumference and cannot be adjusted smaller or larger.

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124 Balmoral

(Fig.2) Balmoral Oxford Style, (Fig.2). With this standard type the quarter part is stitched under the vamp. The closing of this shoe can be made only at the instep part. See the difference with the Derby/Blucher shoe type.

(Fig.3) The vamp folding line from a Balmoral shoe we under the copy line because here the vamp and draw from vamp height point A to nose point B. quarter part are stitched together. If we draw the Nose point B we find as we already explained vamp folding line by A under the copy line, than by the Derby shoe type. Point A we don’t draw the vamp will not fit correctly to the last (Fig.3).

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Balmoral

125

(Fig.4) The folding vamp line we draw as you can see on Fig.4. Be sure that on point A you draw that line with a curve starting by point B, point B

is also the beginning of an extra help line B-D. Draw your vamp line following A-B-C-D

(Fig.5) Fig.5 shows the upper on the last. Vamp height point A will be pushed less than the points B to the front during the montage from the upper

on the last. The flaps of the quarter are stitched together by point A.

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126 Balmoral

(Fig.6) Here we see the stipple line from the vamp line B. This vamp line is not following the help line and will look ugly as it is not made in harmony of the last shape, Fig.6.

(Fig.7) Fig.7 shows the upper on the last. The vamp line by the points A-B-C is looking too big and not in harmony with the last shape.

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Balmoral

127

Balmoral lay-on lines (Fig.8)

(Fig.8) Illustration 1, here you see a normal vamp line Illustration 3, the quarter part is looking too and you will have enough space for making a small (see stipple line) and also not nice when nice application on your quarter part of the shoe. the shoe is ready. Illustration 2, the quarter part is looking to wide (see stipple line) and not nice when the shoe is ready.

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128

Balmoral

(Fig.9) The lay-under part by this Balmoral type is at depending of the leather thickness, the stitching the vamp folding line at least 12 mm and is rows, and how we finish the cutting lines of the going back to 10 mm. This lay-under part is also leather (Fig.9).

(Fig.10) For this Balmoral type we see in general a wing toecap. To draw this wing toecap in the correct way we use a construction nose line, see Fig.10.

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Balmoral

129

(Fig.11) A standard wing toecap we draw as you can see on fig.11. The length of the standard wing toecap is the half of the last copy.

(Fig.12) The standard length of the back part quarter drawing of this standard back part quarter we at the quarter heel height is 1/8 part of the last must take care that we make this part not too length. At the sole side the standard back part small, see Fig.12 quarter is 1/4 part of the last length. During

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130 Balmoral

(Fig.13) We draw the standard back part quarter as you can see in the Illustration but in fact we can draw any design we find suitable for the design of our shoe. Take for this part always 10 mm under lay (Fig.13).

(Fig.14) At the eyelet stay we can draw a stitching line in harmony with this type of model. Draw the stitching row with a wide of 25 mm on the eyelet stay and draw it then to the lateral instep point A, (Fig.14).

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Balmoral

131

(Fig.15) The small laces or eyelet holes we put normally when we close the laces strongly. Use always between 10 and12 mm from the model line see reinforcement material underneath these holes. Fig.15. Important is that these holes are not to close to each other otherwise they can tear out

(Fig.16) Fig.16, see how to draw the vamp lining. We of material on the flanks of the last (shoe). The draw 5 mm before the upper leather vamp line folding line of the vamp lining we draw as well at the vamp lining line A, in order to prevent too the nose point 2 mm inside of the copy line. At much material thickness at that line. After this the lining folding part (for montage the upper) we point A we draw the vamp lining line more to deduct 5 mm of the lining for better gluing of the the front specially to prevent too much thickness upper to the insole of the shoe.

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132 Balmoral

(Fig.17) The quarter lining we must draw very exactly into The quarter lining is by line A, 10 mm longer the upper otherwise the lining will not fit at all. then the vamp lining by line B. The vamp lining Fig.17, you see where to shorten and where to is underneath of the quarter lining and will be give extra material for the lining. stitched together by line A.

(Fig.18) We draw the tongue length (after we draw the copy by the instep points A. quarter lining) 4 mm longer by point B than the The ultimate operation of the upper stitching is to quarter lining. The width of the tongue (by instep add the tongue. The tongue length by the instep point) is 30 mm in the paper pattern, see Fig.18. of the shoe is normally 10 mm. The folding tongue line we draw parallel on the

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Balmoral

133

(Fig.19) When we design quarter back parts in one piece we draw first the folding line for this part. Take good care that you don’t draw this line too much inside the paper pattern otherwise you will shorten the total model and all of the construction points are going backwards.

Follow as much as possible the strait line as you will find at the highest point of the quarter back part. By adding the counter into the upper with the counter machine, the rounding of the quarter back part will be recovered.

(Fig.20) In order the make the quarter part seam stitching This part we add to the outside quarter through stronger often we design a lip to this quarter part the folding line A. We stitch this lip on the inside as you can see on fig.20. quarter.

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134

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Lady Pump

135

CHAPTER 15: LADY PUMP

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136 Lady Pump

1. Vamp part 2. Medial quarter part 3. Lateral quarter part

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A. Folding line B. Vamp quarter line C. Medial quarter line D. Lateral quarter line E. Quarter back line F. Copy line G. Montage folding line

Lady Pump

(Fig.1)

(Fig.2)

(Fig.3)

(Fig.4)

137

Fig.1.The vamp length of a lady pump model can be made in different lengths depends on the fashion or Customer request. Here we put the vamp length 10 mm before the girth point A to point A1. The other points we find as following: Connect point A with point B. Point C is 1/2 part of line A-B. Point D is 2/3 part of line A-B. Point E is quarter back height.

Fig.2.The Vamp and quarter lines you draw as you can see on the Illustration by using the construction lines as you find on the Illustration above. Draw the model lines just under the construction lines. Line D is medial quarter top line, Line C is lateral quarter top line.

Fig.3.The best way to draw on the last (when you need to work with plastic lasts instead of wooden last) is to work with adhesive paper glued on the last.

Fig.4. Especially for a Lady’s Pump it is better to see and draw the design on the last but also for making the correct paper copy for this Lady Pump model. To make these types of models looks easy but in some cases the pattern maker will face problems with the correct fitting of the upper on the last.

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138

Lady Pump

Fig.5. After we have drawn the Pump line on the adhesive paper copy, we cut the model line.

Fig.6. You sees the correct paper copy still glued on the last.

Fig.7. You see what is not good when you make a paper copy for a Lady’s Pump. Never use the complete paper copy as you can see here! Use ONLY the copy part as you can see on Fig.6.

Fig.8. Some pattern makers are still making the complete paper copy for the Lady’s Pump. If you do so you will find the problems as I show in the next Illustrations.

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(Fig.5)

(Fig.6)

(Fig.7)

(Fig.8)

Lady Pump

(Fig.9)

(Fig.10)

139

Fig.9. You see two lines A and B. Line B is the line of the wrong paper copy because you have made it from the whole paper copy of the last. When you check and fit this paper copy after you made it, it will turn out as you see with line B.

Fig.10.Here you see how to make the correct paper copy of the Lady’s Pump. See line A from Fig.9. The difference between correct or not correct making of the paper copy will result in a good fitting and nice looking shoe or bad fitting and look of the shoe.

(Fig.11)

(Fig.12)

Fig.11. This Lady’s Pump is made with the paper copy in the correct way, the instep looks nice.

Fig.12. will show you how the Lady’s Pump will look when you make the paper copy in the wrong way, the instep does not look nice.

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140

Lady Pump

(Fig.13) Fig.13. shows a simple Lady’s Pump design on move to point B. (Point A is the girth point of the a heel of 20 mm. The vamp length depends on last). Use the construction lines to draw the medial

the Customer request or fashion trend. In this pattern we make the vamp 10 mm shorter than point A and

and lateral quarter lines as you see on Fig.13.

(Fig.14) Fig.14, we draw the paper pattern. Here you see the lateral pattern of the Lady’s Pump.

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Lady Pump

141

(Fig.15) Fig.15, Is the basic pattern drawn on the paper copy and the total of the pattern for a Lady’s Pump. I show here the lateral part in one piece and the medial part in two pieces. Mainly when we are making a pattern for a Lady’s Pump in leather we make the medial part in two pieces to save leather material.

When we are using synthetic material (such as PVC) than it can be use full that we make the medial part in one piece, for saving extra cutting and stitching during the manufacturing of this type of shoe materials. *** How to make the parts in one piece will be explained in the next illustrations.

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142 Lady Pump

(Fig.16) Fig.16 shows you the Illustrations, 1 and 2. Illustration 1 is a Lady’s Pump paper pattern with a heel height of 20 mm. Illustration 2 is a Lady’s Pump paper pattern with a heel height of 35 mm. When you look to the folding lines A from both illustrations, the distance from A and B are different, because of the different in heel heights. For a Lady’s Pump with different heel heights we are able to make the paper pattern in one piece what is mainly requested for synthetic materials.

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Lady Pump

143

(Fig.17) Fig.17 shows you A, B and C patterns. The paper patterns A and B are mainly used for expensive leathers. The patterns market with B we cut from a little bit less quality leather (from the same skin). Herewith we save leather and expense for making this shoe.

The paper pattern you see with the letter C is made for synthetic materials in order to save cutting and stitching during the upper manufacturing of this type of shoe. How to make the paper pattern for the heel heights higher than 20 mm we will show you with the next Illustrations.

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144 Lady Pump

(Fig.18) Fig.18 is Step 1. For making the Lady’s Pump paper pattern in one piece. The lateral low instep point is the turning point of the last but also for a paper pattern. This turning point we need to mark as you can see on fig.18.

(Fig.19)

Fig.19 shows you Step 2. Make in the paper pattern also the medial quarter part visible (using the correct folding line). Draw part A through the turning point as you see on the above Illustration. Part A will be the vamp part of this pattern and draw it as you see with the RED line B.

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Lady Pump

145

Fig.20 is Step 3. Place paper pattern part C between the quarter parts in the middle of the folding line A of your paper pattern. Part C you have made already in the beginning of your paper pattern so that you can use it to calculate the turning of your quarter parts and create enough space so that the patterns fit perfectly together as we show in the next Illustration.

(Fig.20)

(Fig.21) Fig.21 is Step 4 Turn the quarter parts D (using the turning point) more open so that quarter part C fits in between. Vamp part B cannot be changed or moved during this maneuver. Part B must have and keep the shape otherwise it will be deformed during the montage of the upper on the last.

The points E shows you where the paper pattern will be shorter, what will have no influence for the fitting of the upper due to the shape of the last at that point.

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146

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Stitch-down

147

CHAPTER 16: STITCH -DOWN

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148 Stitch-down

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Vamp Eyelets stay Eyelets holes Tongue Medial quarter part Lateral quarter part Quarter back part lip

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A. B. C. D. E. F. G.

Folding line Vamp quarter line Medial quarter line Lateral quarter line Quarter back line Copy line Montage folding line

H. Quarter back line J. Quarter back part lip line K. Trench stitching line L. Montage folding line M. Paper copy line N. Vamp line

Stitch-down

149

(Fig.1) Stitch-down, pieces of upper materials Fig.1 shows you the upper pieces of a stitch-down construction shoe. For this construction we need to change the measurement of montage folding part from 15 mm (for a normal montage construction) to 10 mm. For this construction the folding part is not folding under the shoe but is folded to the outside of the shoe. This type of construction normally gives a very flexible shoe if a flexible outsole is added.

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150 Stitch-down

(Fig.2) Fig.2 shows you how to make different folding lines from the quarter back part for a Stitch-down paper pattern;

*** For the montage of the upper we need to fold the material to the outside of the shoe and for the stitchdown construction, 10 mm is enough.

1. Is a folding line for the quarter back part lip (see A), 2. Is a folding line for quarter back part if we want to make the medial and lateral quarter back part in one piece (see B), 3. Is for a normal seam stitching line (see C).

The quarter back part height as you see on this Illustration is around 10 mm higher above the lateral quarter help line.

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The normal heel heights schedule you find at page 69 by Chapter 7, paper patterns.

Strobel shoe

151

CHAPTER 17: STROBEL SHOE

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152 Strobel shoe

(Fig.1) Fig.1 is a Strobel running shoe with all paper pattern pieces, the paper pattern pieces are Illustrated “WITHOUT ANY UNDERLAY” on the separated pieces! Fig.1 just gives you an Idea how many pieces an Athletic running shoe can have. Besides these pieces there are also molds to be made for High Frequent processing.

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Strobel shoe

153

(Fig.2) Strobel Slip Last: Shoe construction method stitches a sole-shaped fabric board to the upper of the shoe that is slipped onto a last, closing the upper with stitches around the perimeter of the sole. The board may be varied from thin flexible materials to thicker stable materials, or a combination of the two stitched together, to improve stability or flexibility (Fig.2).

The word “Strobel” describes the specific way of stitching upper leathers and lining to the insole of footwear. The Strobel construction offers a much higher flexibility and strength than many other types of construction. The outsole is normally either cemented or stitched to the insole to complete manufacture. Fig.3 shows you how to mark the points for strobel stitching. The points A and B we mark on the paper copy from the last and last insole! These marks are very important when we are stitching the insole on the upper as they must fit exactly together at these points. The paper pattern maker will mark these points in his pattern correctly.

(Fig.3)

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154

Strobel shoe

(Fig.4) Fig.4 shows only the outlines of this strobel pattern as I need to explain how to proceed for strobel construction. The standard folding line A we can change to folding line B for the upper to cap, in this way we shorten the line C at the front of the last. The back part line D we increase 3 mm of the total length from the paper pattern to make the pattern a little bigger as we need this for the production to put the last inside of the upper.

When the upper is too tight it will be very difficult to put the upper in the correct shape .After the upper is fixed to the last the heat setter will tighten the upper to the last. Do not put the heat setter for synthetic upper material higher than 60 degrees Celsius! Otherwise the upper will get bigger during this process!

(Fig.5) Fig.5 shows you how some pattern makers are making this back part line in the paper pattern. They are doing this because of the foam thickness we put in the upper quarter part. In case you are doing this, reconsider that the foam is very soft and when you

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push the foam you have no thickness at all. To draw the back part line like you see on this Illustration will result in that the feet slips out during walking. Therefore it is important that you draw the back part line as explained in the first Illustration of this page.

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(Fig.6) Fig.6 shows you how we need to make the mark points for Strobel system. For the montage folding we add only 2 mm to our basic paper pattern. For the insole board pattern we take out; 2 mm and 3 mm from the last insole pattern. At the front, back part, lateral and medial parts from the last insole pattern we take out 3 mm, the other parts we take out 2 mm. This we do for the stretching of the upper materials at these points.

These patterns are made when the OUTSOLE covers at least 10 mm from the sides of the upper by the montage folding. (That is mainly by sportive outsoles). In case the outsole covers less than 10 mm then we need to add more montage folding material to the basic paper pattern. In that case we need to decrease the same measurements from the Insole board.

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156 Strobel shoe

(Fig.7) Fig.7 shows you the lining for an athletic sport shoe. The points from A to B are mainly zigzag stitched. The points from C to D are also zigzag stitched or glued together. The Top quarter line is stitched and turned and give a good look for a sports shoe.

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The materials used for this type of shoe is mainly textile or mesh backed with thin foam. The back part quarter line from the lining is shortening as we explained with the normal lining.

Standard Blucher boot

157

CHAPTER 18: STANDARD BLUCHER BOOT

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158 Standard Blucher boot

Names of Construction points and lines in the paper copy for standard boot patterns

1. Vamp length point 2. Instep point 3. Quarter height point 4. Lateral instep point 5. Medial instep point 6. Ball/Girth point 7. Shank point 8. Heel height point 9. Upper height point 10. Front leg width point 11. Middle leg width point 12. Back leg width point

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A. Basic heel height line B. Heel height line C. Copy line D. Ball/Girth line E. Lateral quarter line F. Medial quarter line G. Lay on/or lay under help line H. Instep help line J. K. L. M. N. O. P.

Quarter size line Front leg position line Middle leg position line Back leg position line Inclined upper height line Front leg position help line Back leg position help line

Standard Blucher boot 159

Names of upper parts and paper pattern lines 1. Vamp 2. Tongue 3. Quarter

A. Folding line B. Quarter flap line C. Vamp quarter line D. Vamp tongue Line E. Upper height line F. Quarter lay on line G. Tongue line

H. Quarter back line J. Vamp under lay line K. Trench stitching line L. Montage folding line M. Paper copy line N. Eyelet stay line

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160 Standard Blucher boot

(Fig.1) For the construction of a boot we need lines for the direction of our legs when we are standing. These lines define “leg standing” in our paper copy compared to the heel height of the boot. It makes no difference how high the heel is because the leg standing lines will be drawn always in 90 degrees of the basic line A-B (see Fig.1). There are a few different ways to drawn the line J-A1. See the red lines in the Illustration above, here we draw a line from point A1 through point C2. Than in 38 degrees we draw the line from A1 – C2 to the copy line. (For each 10 mm of the heel height we calculate 1 degree more). For example: our heel height is 20 mm high, the line A1 – J is 38 degrees When the heel height is 30 mm than the degree must be 1 higher, 39 degrees, etc, etc. The line A1 – C2 determine the first leg line O – P. The line O - P stands in 90 degrees on line A – B.

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The middle leg standing line L – M we find through point K, point K is the half of the line A1 – J. The line L – M we draw also in 90 degrees on the basic line A – B. The Line A1 – A3 stands as well in 90 degrees from the line A – B. The Line A3 – P we draw in 90 degrees on line A1 – A3. The height of the boot we explain with the next illustration. The other way to find point J is a following: Point J normally we setup 5 mm higher than instep point F, for Men shoes for Lady shoes we setup 10 mm higher than point F. The rest of the points we find in the same way as explained above.

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161

(Fig.2) Standard height for a boot for size 42 is 120 mm. We can calculate the standard height for boots with the “Golden Cut” for any size we need to make. Important is that we ALWAYS use the Last length, NOT the Feet length! Fig.2 shows you how to setup the golden cut on your drawing. We start always from the heel height. The standard boot height we put always 15 mm higher (for all sizes) than the point you find with the golden cut.

Example for size 42, feet length is 280 mm: 38% (= point golden cut) x 280 mm = 106.4 + 15 mm = 121.4 mm is the standard boot height. Example for size 39, feet length is 260 mm: 38% (= point golden cut) x 260 mm = 98.8 + 15 mm = 113.8 mm is the standard boot height.

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162

Standard Blucher boot

(Fig.3) Fig.3 explains how to connect and find the correct points and lines for a standard boot design. Important for the start is to know the size and the girth measurement from the shoe we need to make. Our example; size 42 and with a girth measurement of 240 mm. Girth measurement = 240 mm less 10 mm = 230 mm is Ankle measurement. 230 mm: 2 = 115 mm is the half ankle size. ¼ part of the ankle size is 230 mm: 4 = 57, 5 mm ¼ parts from the ankle size we setup from the middle leg standing line L-M to the front this will be point R. The same part we setup to the back and this will be point S. R-S is the half ankle size on the line A3- P (See Fig.3).

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(See for the girth/ankle measurements as well Chapter 2 Girth measurements). With the next steps we increase and connect; The lines O-P with 15 mm (point P1). The lines J-R (point R1). The line A2-S. We have created now the construction for a standard ankle boot and we can draw now the design for it.

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163

(Fig.4) Fig.4 shows you a standard Blucher boot at the ankle height in the correct harmonious proportions. If you want to design a fantasy model in your paper pattern setup then always use the standard boot template, so that you are always sure that your design will fit properly on the last.

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164 Standard Blucher boot

(Fig.5) For designing a higher boot than the standard boot we need to add extra construction lines with the leg measurements. Except for the line P1-A3, we start as usual with the construction lines and points for the standard boot. For every 40 mm we are making the boot higher than the standard boot we increase 10 mm for the leg wide. We explained that for size 42 the girth measurement is 240 mm, the ankle measurement is 10 mm less = 230 mm. The leg measurement is for each 40 mm higher extra 10 mm wider; Ankle measurement plus 10 mm = leg measurement = 240 mm. (Every 10 mm higher = 2 ½ mm wider for the leg measurement).

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Fig.5 shows you how to extend the 40 mm for the leg measurements. Always use the construction line L-M when you increase the measurements for the leg. Keep in mind that your leg will always stand strait up no matter the heel height of your shoe you will design.

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165

(Fig.6) Fig.6 shows you a higher boot than the normal standard boot. The constructions for standard designs we setup in order to get harmonious proportions. The construction as I have explained, you can use for the most of standard designs as they are always the same.

designs to explain a shoe type. From these basic models we design a fantasy model. The Fashion and trends will explain you what type of shoe you must design to stay up to date.

In the shoe industry we know around 45 basic

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166 Standard Blucher boot

(Fig.7) For the standard Blucher boot we make the lining as for the low cut Blucher. Fig.7 shows you how many millimeters to take in at the back part line.

(Fig.8) The vamp lining we make the pattern the same as for the low cut shoe (Fig.8)

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Standard Blucher boot

167

(Fig.9) In many boots you will be asked to make a water tongue pattern. Draw the water tongue with the folding line B parallel with the copy line in the same way as you see on Fig.9. (The tongue line B cross the vamp line 10 mm for underlay). Tongue line A we draw exactly through the trench point and parallel with the folding line B as well.

Fig.9 shows you how to extend the eyelet stay from part 1 to part 2. Folding line A will be later the folding line from the water tongue in the upper. Now you have the half of the water tongue in your paper pattern. The next Illustration explains how to construct the complete water tongue.

The stipple line drawing (See Fig.9) we duplicate on folding line A. We increase 4 mm on the eyelet stay where we need later to stitch this part on the quarter part.

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168 Standard Blucher boot

(Fig.10) The half of the water tongue is made when you draw the underlay between the folding lines A and B, at the vamp and tongue line. The next step: you duplicate parts 1 and 2 on the folding line B, (see Fig.10). The water tongue is now complete.

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The folding lines A are the folding lines from the water tongue when you stitch the water tongue in the upper part of the boot.

Moccasin

169

CHAPTER 19: MOCCASIN

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170 Moccasin

(Fig.1) Fig.1 shows you the paper pattern of a moccasin low cut shoe. Here I have drawn only the lateral side of this shoe type so that it is easier to understand. Important is that you mark the points 1,2 and 3 on the insole of the last and on the basic pattern as you can see on Fig.1. Where we stitch together the moccasin and the plateau by hand, we need also to mark the stitching points on the paper pattern. These stitching points we setup between 4mm or 5 mm from each other. Fig.2 we explain this on the next page.

(Fig.2)

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Moccasin

171

(Fig.3) After we cut out the quarter/ vamp part from the paper pattern we line up the mark points 2 and 3 on the last insole as shown on Fig.3. Starting with point A we move the quarter/vamp pattern each time a little to the front in the direction of point B. Here we must take care that the quarter/ vamp pattern lines up exactly with the last insole pattern.

By moving the quarter/vamp pattern to the front several times you mark the distance between the last insole pattern and the quarter/vamp pattern as you see these by point C. Fig.3 shows you how I have done it on the lateral side only! You must do the same also on the medial side.

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172 Moccasin

Line C

Middle line of the paper pattern and last insole

(Fig.4) Fig.4, here you see the result from the quarter/vamp pattern by the line C. At the middle line from the quarter/vamp and last insole pattern we close the lateral and medial parts. (see then the next illustration)

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Moccasin

173

Line C Montage folding part Half length last insole Montage folding part

(Fig.5) We mark the stitching points on the stretched quarter/ vamp pattern (Lateral and medial). Control that you make the same amount of stitching points on the quarter/vamp pattern as on your unstretched quarter/vamp pattern (See Fig.5).

To make the paper pattern of a moccasin is not that easy and also depends on the upper material we use. By following this way as I explained here you will get a very good result.

Starting at the half part of the “last insole length” we add the montage folding part for the quarter part of the paper pattern.

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T-Band Low cut Shoe

175

CHAPTER 20: T-BAND LOW CUT SHOE

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176 T-Band Low cut Shoe

Turning point for part D

(Fig.1) Part C from the T-Band design you turn and setup to the folding line A – B. By turning this part to the folding line A – B (see turning point for part D) you draw the stipple line D, see Fig.1. Part D you extend for the strap flap, see part E.

(Fig.2) Strap part F you extend 3 mm above the last copy, see Fig.2. We extend the strap of a T-Band shoe because this strap must go through the vamp flap and need therefore extra upper material. Point G is the point where we add a shoe buckle for closing the shoe.

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Kids High Boot

177

CHAPTER 21: KIDS HIGH BOOT

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178 Kids High Boot

We setup for a high boot first the construction lines as explained by the standard boot. Draw then the design of the high boot in your construction as you see on Fig.1. Follow the instructions as explained in this Illustration

(Fig.1) 1. Draw the vamp design in your paper pattern as you see under point A. 2. Turn the vamp by using the turn point between the lateral and medial quarter help lines. 3. Turn the vamp to folding line B, this folding line we setup from the girth point to the step in point. Here we need to find a balance line between the girth and the step in point as you see on Fig.1. By higher heel boots you will get a bigger difference between the girth and instep point. By turning the vamp design down to point B you will get much less

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wrinkles at the instep point of the high boot. Besides that the boot will look much nicer after you take out the last and it will be easier to produce these boots. 4. By the front part of the vamp you deduct 5 mm and at the side of the vamp between line A and C you split the difference as you see on Fig.1 by point B. 5. The quarter part of the boot must follow the normal line from the quarter. These compensate enough for the whole boot as we have turned the vamp in the front under the normal last copy.

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(Fig.2) Fig.2 shows you the underlay from the quarter part and the lining of the boot. The blue stipple line is the lining in the boot. Mainly you find in many boots the lining is too big, especially in the parts where I mention 5 mm. Make the lining narrow enough otherwise it will damage the feet.

Make some experience with these lines and you will find out the correct way for your paper patterns. Always keep in mind by the construction of a high boot that the leg of a person will stay always in a straight line up whatever the heel height will be.

The underlay from the quarter part by the instep point we increase to 20 mm as it will support the vamp part at that point much better and the boot will look nicer in general.

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Cutting Edges 181

CHAPTER 22: CUTTING EDGES FOR UPPERS

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182

Cutting Edges

Cutting Edges for uppers

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Cutting Edges

183

Stitching lining in leather uppers in Different ways

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184

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Pattern Grading

185

CHAPTER 23: PATTERN GRADING

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186 Pattern Grading

Last Copy Grading. After you scan your last copy insert it into your Photoshop program. For France sizes the length increase/decrease each size with 6.66 mm. The heights increase/decrease each size with 2.5 mm. See page 194 Grading, Fig 8.

2.5 mm

6.66 mm

Medial Last copy line Base line

Heel heigth

With the medial site and with the correct heel height, we draw the last copy on the base line.

D. Now you know the deferent’s between each size in length and height,

Many last copies are different in height and length. If you are working with this system for the first time you can find out if this system is correct for you.

E. Normally the length increase/decrease with 6.66 mm, the height increase/decrease with 2.5 mm for France sizes,

Do the following; A. Make a last copy of the smallest size, B. Make a last copy of the biggest size, C. Measure the length and height and divide the measurement of the smallest and the biggest size,

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F. If your measurements are slightly different it will be no problem to use your measurements, experience will show you how to use the measurements.

Pattern Grading

187

Fig.1 Scan your last copy and open in Photoshop. Duplicate the background layer and rename this layer as last copy. You can duplicate this layer on your menu, choose layer > duplicate layer or drag your background layer the bottom in the rigth lower corner, see yelow circles.

Fig. 1

Rename this new layer and write last copy.

Fig.2 With the magic wand tool select the last copy. You will see the dots around the last copy and around the whole layer (make sure that you have selected the layer “last copy”). Than go to the menu tools and go to select > inverse.

Fig. 2 Fig.3 After you had select inverse, go to the menu bar and choose layer > layer via copy.

Fig. 3

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188 Pattern Grading

Fig.4 You have created a new layer with ONLY the Last copy. Rename this layer with the size you have used. (as example in this layer I used size 37)

Fig. 4

Fig.5 Scale the last copy in the size you want, choose on the menu bar; edit > transform > Scale. Make sure you see your info panel choose on the menu bar; Window > Info. The layer with the last copy is actived and see on the info panel W: show the length and H: the heigth of your last copy. See the yellow circles in the info panel

Fig. 5

Fig.6 With the ruler tool you can control the length and heigth from your last copy. The ruler tool you find on the tool bar under the eyedropper tool extension part. See yellow circles.

Fig. 6

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Pattern Grading

189

Fig.7 With the ruler tool click at any point you like to measured and drag the curser to the end point. In the info panel you can check the measurements, see yellow circle.

Fig. 7

Fig.8 Select the layer of the size, then go to the menu tools and choose layer > duplicate layer. Rename this layer in the size you want to create and keep this new layer activated. Scale the new layer as you have done before, see Fig.5 and drag the last copy to the size measurement as you want, control the measurement in the info panel, see yellow circles.

Fig. 8 Fig.9 in this illustration you see the France sizes 36 till 40. You can make any size you want. What you need are the correct scaling tables. These scaling tables that I have created are based on many years of my shoe experience.

Fig. 9

Without these scaling tables you cannot make the correct sizes.

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190 Pattern Grading

Fig. 10

Fig. 10 Fig.10 shows you the grading from insoles and basic patterns in different sizes. These patterns are made in the same way as the last copies BUT with different scaling tables.

Fig. 11 Fig.11 here you see the basic pattern without the background of the last copy. For every part of my pattern I have made a shape layer what I can use later for printing out different sizes. This shape layers are not visible for now.

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Drag first a guide line to the middle of your document and line up your basic pattern against this guide line. From your menu bar choose layer > duplicate layer. Select only the layer you want to duplicate; all the other layers are not visible!

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191

Fig.12 Select on the menu bar Edit > Transform > Flip vertical and you see directly two basic patterns in your document.

Fig. 12 Fig.13 Line up the two basic patterns against the guide line. To work out the pieces of the basic pattern make on layer 50% visible. Than from the menu bar select layer > Merge visible, now you have only one layer with your basic pattern and you can drag your basic pattern around in one piece.

Fig. 13 Fig.14 Activate now your shape layer and you can work out the pieces from your basic pattern.

Fig.14

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192 Pattern Grading

Fig.15 From the menu bar select layer > Duplicate layer. Be careful here that you only select the shape layer from the toe puff.

Fig. 15 Fig.16 From the menu bar select Edit > Transform > Flip vertical and you see now the other toe puff part.

Fig. 16 Fig.17 Drag the duplicate layer from the toe puff above the guide line and this part must fit correctly into the basic pattern.

Fig. 17

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Pattern Grading

193

Fig.18 Now we merge the two part and we get one complete piece of the toe puff. All other layers must cannot be visible, in this case you see ONLY the to puff on your document. At this stage you can print out the toe puff in the size you have made.

Fig.18 Fig.19 In our basic pattern we can make the shape layer visible we want to print out and to use for cutting materials.

Fig. 19 Fig.20 For making the backpart pice as you can see on this figure we drag a vertical guide line into our document and place our basic pattern against the guide line. Duplicate the shape layer and merge visible. Now you have the backpart piece ready for printing out for cutting the materials.

Fig.20

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194 Pattern Grading

Fig.21 Making your pattern pieces in the sizes you want scale the basic pattern in the sizes you need and print the pieces out for cutting your materials.

Fig. 21

Fig.22 The shape layer you see here is from one size smaller. Drag the shape layer perfectly in the basic pattern (here is one size bigger) until it fits like in Fig.19. Print it out for cutting materials.

Fig. 22

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Insole Grading France sizes 40

Length Increase/decrease in mm. 6.66

Length in mm. 266.40

Wide Increase/decrease in mm. 1.4

39

6.66

259.74

1.4

87.0

38

6.66

253.08

1.4

85.6

37

6.66

246.42

1.4

84.2

36

6.66

239.76

1.4

82.8

35

6.66

233.10

1.4

81.4

Wide in mm. 88.4

Insole measurements are based on the last insole construction.

Wide

Length

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Design / Last Copy

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CHAPTER 24: DESIGN / LAST COPY

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198 Design / Last Copy

It is possible to create your design without an expensive shoe program into basic patterns within minutes. Through this system it is easy to keep your last copies and basic patterns in your folders and data base. You can scale your designs into every shoe size or last copy.

For designers: ask your Customer to send to you the last copy or make the last copy yourself when you have the knowledge how to make it.

For pattern makers: ask the designer the design.

The tools you need to manage in this system are the most easy ones and it will take you only a short time to learn them in case you don’t know them.

Orthopedic shoes: need mainly two last copies, now you can make your first basic paper pattern in a few minutes and transform your second basic pattern in seconds. Keeps your data base updated for Customers concerning their designs and model.

Steps to fit your Design into a Basic last copy

(Fig.1) Fig.1, Mark your last copy with the construction points; vamp length, instep, and heel height points. Setup measure lines in the left corner (5 cm x 5 cm) for scanning and control your last copy, be sure that

(Fig.2) the last copy is correct in height and length in your program. Fig.2, Scan your last copy.

Fig.3, insert the scanned last copy in Photoshop. File > Open > select your folder and insert your last copy. Use the move tool (red circle) for dragging the guide lines. Control on the ruler the height and length of your last copy, see yellow circle and arrows.

(Fig.3)

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Design / Last Copy

199

Fig.4, with the last copy visible insert a new layer, see yellow circles.

We have two different selection tools. By holding the selection tool box you will find one with a black arrow and one with a white arrow. Use the white arrow selection tool for changing your lines.

(Fig.4)

Fig.5, draw the help lines. Select the pen tool, the new layer, and the path type. Path type

With the pen tool connect the construction points as you see on Fig.5.

New layer

Pen tool

The line thickness we set to 3 points (select brush to set to 3 points).

(Fig.5) Fig.6, select a new layer and draw on this layer the back part and quarter top line. We draw this line with the pen tool. With the direct selection tool (A) we can change the shape of the lines.

Pen tool

New layer

After we have setup these lines, press key B (=brush) and key Enter. (Brush thickness 3 points).

Direct selection tool (A). (Fig.6)

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200 Design / Last Copy

Fig.7 shows the back part quarter and the quarter top lines. The yellow circles show the new layer the brush tool and the line thickness.

(Fig.7) Fig.8 select your shoe design what you want to drawn into your last copy. Select File > Open > choose your folder, Open > select > and press Open.

(Fig.8) Fig.9 show the design in your Photoshop program when you have opened correctly.

(Fig.9)

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Design / Last Copy

201

Fig.10 is the next step for dragging your design into your last copy. Select Window > Arrange > 2-up Vertical, see the yellow circles.

(Fig.10) Fig.11 drags your design with the move tool to your last document. The move tool you find on your tools menu, see yellow circle.

(Fig.11) Fig.12 views your design and last copy in only one document. Select Window > Arrange > Consolidate All to tabs, see yellow circles.

(Fig.12)

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202 Design / Last Copy

Fig.13 with the design in your last copy document, set now the Opacity from your design layer to 60%, see yellow circle. Make sure that you select your design layer to 60% and NOT your last copy layer.

(Fig.13) Fig.14 drag with the move tool the design as close as possible to the construction lines from the last copy, confirm the new position of the design by pressing the button of Commit transform. Pay attention to the Opacity of your design layer, when needed to see your last copy better decrease the Opacity. You can rotate your design when needed.

(Fig.14) Fig.15 selects the wrap tool. Select Edit > Transform > Wrap. See the yellow circles.

(Fig.15)

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Design / Last Copy

Commit transform

203

Fig.16 with the wrap tool you are now able to push your design better into your last copy. Press the Commit transform button when you are agree with the result. You can wrap more times when needed.

(Fig.16) Fig.17 adds a new layer; select the pen tool and the path type for your document. See yellow circles.

(Fig.17) Fig.18 is setup for drawing the design model lines into your last copy. Disable the help line layer (not the back part and quarter top line layer) and you can see better the model lines of the design. Draw the model lines on your new layer. See yellow circles.

(Fig.18)

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204 Design / Last Copy

Fig.19 you have drawn de design model lines into the last copy. When you disable the layer with your design you see the same as on this fig.19.

Line thickness

Shape type layers

Brush tool

The eyelets are drawn on the layers in shape type and the model lines on layers with path type.

(Fig.19) Fig.20 save your work in the first place as Ps file. Select File > Save as > select your folder to keep the document. See the yellow circles. When needed you can change the model lines and or keep the most of your work already done for your next design on the same last copy.

Fig.20) Fig.21 Save your document as Jpeg files for printing it out. Select Layer >Flatten Image > Save as > See yellow circles.

(Fig.21)

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Layer with design

Design / Last Copy

205

Fig.22 is the steps for the folder you want to use for saving your documents. Save as > select your folder in the dialogue box > select the type and save. Your document can be printed.

(Fig.22)

Fig.23 Select File > Print > and you find the dialogue box as you see on fig.23 See the yellow circles > Layout is landscape > Scale is100% > Print. We call this our Basic paper pattern.

(Fig.23) Depended on the montage of the shoe you can draw any system to this basic paper pattern model.

You can do this already from the beginning or later. Sometimes we use the same model for two or more different systems.

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Designs made with Photoshop

207

CHAPTER 25: DESIGNS MADE WITH PHOTOSHOP

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Designs made with Photoshop

W

alking shoes

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Designs made with Photoshop

R

209

unning shoes

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210 Designs made with Photoshop

B

asketball shoes

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Designs made with Photoshop

211

S

kate shoes

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212 Designs made with Photoshop

O

utdoor shoes

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